Library Services for Distance Learning: Sixth Bibliography

UNDER CONSTRUCTION ACRL Distance Learning Section

Chapter 5: Managing E-Resources

Anbu K., J. P., Kataria, S., & Ram, S. (2013). Dynamics of managing electronic resources: Electronic resource management system (ERMS) initiatives. DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology, 33(4), 300-305. doi:10.14429/djlit.33.4885

Bazeley, J. W., & Yoose, B. (2013). Notes on operations. Library Resources & Technical Services, 57(2), 118-127. doi:10.5860/lrts.57n1.118

Beals, N. (2010). Revisiting Wayne State University’s ERM system: Six years later. Against the Grain, 22(2), 20-22.
This article follows up an earlier case study that Beals wrote when her library purchased the electronic resources management (ERM) system Innovative Interfaces Millenium. Beals notes the importance of regularly evaluating an ERM system after it has been purchased, to determine whether it is meeting the needs of the library; indeed, explicity establising the library’s needs and goals is a critical part of planning for and purchasing an ERM system. As Beals writes, her library’s use of the ERM system has evolved so that the ERM is widely intergrated in the staff’s workflow, with increased efficiency as a result. Beals addresses issues such as training staff and the ERM’s ability to interface with other library systems. Beals writes about challenges, too: for example, having to manually enter new acquisitions into the ERM and managing updates to the system. The article provides an interesting perspective on the evaluation and maintenance of an ERM system purchased several years earlier. R. Miller

Beisler, A., & Kurt, L. (2012). E-book workflow from inquiry to access: Facing the challenges to implementing E-book access at the University of Nevada, Reno. Collaborative Librarianship, 4(3), 96-116.
Beisler and Kurt detail the University of Nevada, Reno Library’s process of creating a more optimal e-books workflow.  Starting in 2009, with the library’s e-book acquisitions increasing greatly and the continuing inconsistency within the e-book publishing industry, the library decided that a new e-book workflow needed to be created as the e-book format did not fit into any of the pre-existing workflows.  In an effort to investigate what type of workflow was required, the library formed a cross-departmental team that focused on collaboration and communication within the library, reviewed current processes and created new ones.  The taskforce was directed to create a new workflow and focused on all stages of workflow from the point of inquiry to its end of life (although the authors acknowledge that end of life process needs to be further investigated).  The taskforce employed software tools to manage the e-books that were already available to staff.

This article also describes the findings of the taskforce, the first of which was the creation of a new workflow.  This new workflow was divided into four processes: Assessment/Acquisition (which was further divided into three e-book paths based on licensing terms); Access; Maintenance and Troubleshooting; and End of Life.  The new workflow was mapped out and the processes were entered into a collaborative Microsoft SharePoint form, which was visible and editable by all involved in the e-book process.  A larger result was the reformation of traditional Technical Services departments, specifically the merging of the Acquisitions department and the E-Resources & Resources department into E-Resources and Acquisition Services. J. Kolendo

Blake, K., & Collins, M. (2010). Controlling chaos: Management of electronic journal holdings in an academic library environment. Serials Review, 36(4), 242-250. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2010.08.015
This article provides commentary on the challenges of managing electronic journal holdings in an academic library. After consulting librarians across the United States, the authors have discovered that it is an arduous task to keep electronic journals up to date and organized. Managing titles and coverage dates takes numerous hours because of titles being bought and sold to different publishers, which often creates voids in journal collections as the library’s rights to that information changes. The use of Electronic Resource Management Systems (ERMS) and similar resources is helping to minimize confusion of title location and dates of coverage, but ERMS have not been adopted by all academic communities. In order to keep better track of their collections, libraries are documenting the changes in electronic holdings by synchronizing access points and keeping update times as minimal as possible. Libraries are also incorporating access and administrative metadata management to keep track of frequent changes in journal and perpetual access. Innovations are becoming available for librarians, like EBSCO Rapid Renewal, CORAL, E-Matrix, and blogging, which help keep information organized and create easier ways to determine what electronic holdings are still available and which need to be assessed again. While the cost of managing electronic holdings is mostly in dedicated man hours, there is still a distinct benefit in keeping these resources organized and as up to date as possible. D. Moench

Bucknell, T. (2012). Garbage in, gospel out: Twelve reasons why librarians should not accept cost-per-download figures at face value. The Serials Librarian, 63(2), 192-212. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2012.680687
Bucknell’s article investigates potential problems with usage statistics, specifically cost-per-download, and advises that in order to avoid erroneous data librarians need to be aware of the limitations of statistical information. Bucknell lists 12 possible problems with statistical measures, some of which include: platform design affecting usage; the extent of content is not the same in each title; all subjects are not the same; usage spikes; and transfers between platforms and publishers can invalidate statistics. Because of these limitations, the author warns against cost per download and other usage statistics being the sole factor in renewal and cancellation decisions.

In addition to presenting the issues, Bucknell provides possible solutions for each potential problem. For example, the challenge of obtaining statistics across different platforms can perhaps be solved with a collection of a range of usage figures instead of a singular number. The issue of different subject disciplines having different research needs (research suggests science researchers look at more articles, but researchers in the humanities study individual articles for a longer period of time) can be solved by weighting usage statistics according to subject area. Additionally, the author provides a case study of how to review and analyze statistical information while keeping these issues at the forefront. J. Kolendo

Bulut, B., Ugur, H., Gürdal, G., Holt, T., Çukadar, S., Akbayrak, E. H., & Çelebi, M. K. (2013). ANKOS publisher application system and its impact on the e-resource evaluation process. Serials Review, 39(1), 29-36. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2013.01.002

Calvert, K. (2013). Starting from scratch on perpetual access. Serials Librarian, 65(1), 69-73. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.800464

Canepi, K., & Imre, A. (2010). Not just drifting: Checking online serial issue availability. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 157-166. doi: 10.1080/03615261003622973
This article addresses automated verification for online serial accessibility. The librarians at Southern Illinois University Carbondale conducted a study (2009) to investigate current practices for efficient online journal access. ONline Information eXchange (ONIX) for Serials and Serials Release Notification (SRN) are discussed as effective automated methods for checking access. This article is useful for librarians who are responsible for checking online journal access. M. Nelson

Carpenter, T. (2010). Electronic resource management standardization─Still a mixed bag. Against the Grain, 22(4), 84-85.
This article discusses the three aspects of electronic resource management (ERM): standards, systems, and subscriptions. The author highlights problems associated with ERM. Such problems include product selection, costs, licensing, and technical support. Standards for ERM are also outlined. This article provides insight for librarians who participate in the decision making process for acquiring digital resources. M. Nelson

Caudwell, J. (2013). An A-Z of RDSs. Serials Librarian, 65(1), 1-24. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.798849

Clendenning, L. F., Duggan, L., & Smith, K. (2010). Navigating a course for serials staffing into the new millennium. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 224-231. doi:10.1080/03615261003625893
The authors describe the reorganization of staffing and workflow for serials acquisitions and electronic resources at Indiana University Bloomington Libraries. Various factors motivated the reorganization: the previous “silo” structure of separate departments was inefficient; an acquisitions trend away from print to electronic resources meant more time and staffing had to be allocated to the electronic resources; library users expect more access to electronic resources, which again means more staffing and workload for electronic rather than print acquisitions. The library brought in an outside consulting firm to analyze the departments and make recommendations. The consultants recommended the implementation of an electronic resource management (ERM) system as well as a consolidation of workflow and responsibilities into a single library unit, Serials and Electronic Acquisitions (SERA). Consolidating into one department meant cross-training staff and expanding individuals’ skill sets, which in turn meant upgrading some staff positions. The authors do note that the change from a silo to a combined structure is an ongoing challenge; in fact, organizational changes like that can spark worries among staff about possible layoffs. Overall, however, staff have responded well to the reorganization, which brings with it new opportunities, such as the increased affordances of working with an ERM system and the possibility of SERA playing a role in the university digital repository. Because of its emphasis on electronic resources, this article will be of interest to distance librarians. R. Miller

Collins, M. (2010). Partnering for innovation: Interviews with OCLC and Kuali OLE. Serials Review, 36(2), 93-101. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2010.03.001
Collins interviewed directors of OCLC’s Web-scale Management Services (WMS) and Kuali Open Library Environment (OLE) to present a profile of the two systems. OCLC WMS and Kuali OLE are options for libraries seeking to expand a local collection development process into a collaborative, integrated library system that shares data with other libraries. Collins’ interview questions elicit helpful overviews of the two systems, including the systems’ general purpose and uses, target customer base, and skills that librarians need in order to run the systems. Collins also provides a useful introduction to the emerging trend of collaborative integrated library systems. Distance librarians working in the areas of access, collection-development, and IT will find this article useful. R. Miller

Collins, M., & Grogg, J. E. (2011). Building a better ERMS. Library Journal, 136(4), 22-28.
The authors surveyed academic librarians and vendors to determine priorities in electronic resource management systems (ERMS). Librarians identified the following critical functionalities in an ERMS: 1) workflow management; 2) license management; 3) statistics management; 4) administrative information storage; 5) acquisitions functionality; 6) interoperability. The authors summarize the results of their study according to each of those categories, noting in the end that interoperability–enabling an ERMS to function across systems–may well affect all of the other categories. Librarians spoke of the “closed-box” nature of many ERMS, making transfer of data, for example, from an interlibrary loan system into an ERMS problematic. The authors discuss emerging systems that seek to address shortcomings in present ERMS and call for greater involvement by frontline ERM librarians in the process of developing new systems. A chart comparing commercial and open-source ERMS is provided. R. Miller

Dahl, C. (2012). Primed for patron-driven acquisition: A look at the big picture. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(2), 119-126. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.684557
After a literature review of the 2009-2011 on background and implementation issues, Dahl gives an overview of the issues surrounding patron-driven acquisitions (PDA). The rise in the adoption of PDA occurs at the same time that shifting understandings about the purpose of libraries, collections and their value, and the role of expert librarians in selection are occurring. Libraries are becoming active student earning spaces and less book warehouses.  Collections are seen as what patrons can discover and access through the library, not as physical volumes. In an environment where collections are valued by number of circulations, books purchased through PDA have higher circulation than non-PDA, librarian selected purchases. Expert selected books, using limited resources, allow for purchasing only a small amount of the scholarly output. Use of PDA would free up time for librarians for other priorities. PDA elicits many questions including maintaining control over the collection and expenditure of limited funds. Various levels of control can be built into the PDA program including setting parameters for what is in the catalogue, setting number of clicks to trigger purchase, mediating purchases and other methods. Due to the limited amount of materials multiple methods need to be used in collecting monographs. Additionally librarians need to be involved in shaping the PDA program. The purpose of library collections is evolving from preservation of information and timelessness to providing greater access and ensuring use. B. Avery

Davis, S., Malinowski, T., Davis, E., MacIver, D., Currado, T., & Spagnolo, L. (2012). Who ya gonna call? Troubleshooting strategies for e-resources access problems. The Serials Librarian, 62(1-4), 24-32. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2012.652459
This article discuss various general aspects of e-resource access troubleshooting, including the pros and cons of e-journal access, e-journal activation issues, proxy server and OpenURL problems, access restrictions, and general practices. Each topic is covered by an expert in the area ranging from academic librarian to sales executive, technical support manager, and account services manager. The article concludes by stressing the importance of teamwork within the library to alleviate these issues and to have backup personnel in each area to prevent a “single point of failure.” This article is well-suited for those looking for a basic overview of e-resource access problems. D. McKay

Debonis, R., O’Donnell, E., &Thomes, C. (2012). (Self-) discovery service: Helping students help themselves. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 235-250. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705648
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, academic libraries began to experiment with federated search tools, but over time, found them to be unsatisfactory. In recent years there has been a “make-over” of the federated search engine in the form of discovery tools offered by a number of ILS providers such as Ebsco, OCLC, and ProQuest, just to name a few. There are also some open-source products. Librarians seem to be moving more and more in this direction as the traditional ILS appears to be inadequate for the level of discovery and delivery that users expect. Many libraries have already committed to a particular discovery tool and many others are on the verge of doing so.
In 2011, librarians at the University of Maryland chose to implement the Ebsco Discovery Service (EDS). The goal was two-fold: to provide a simple interface that would “be as intuitive as possible” and to simultaneously “protect [users] from information overload.” In this article, the authors discuss their findings following the implementation of the (EDS. Librarians assessed EDS both through online classroom use and also through reference interview protocol. In both cases, the assessment revealed that, before students can utilize the EDS effectively in meeting their information needs, they need to determine if in fact the EDS is the best place to begin. Students choose resources based on their “familiarity with particular resources or their perception that a particular resource was ‘easy to use.’” C. Caretto

Emery, J., & Stone, G. (2013). Looking forward. Library Technology Reports, 49(2), 39-43.

England, D. (2013). We have our ERM system, it’s implemented: Why am I still going here and there to get the information I need? Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 111-117. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.760148

Gelber, N. (2013). Five years of empirical research in the area of technical services: An examination of selected peer-reviewed journals, 2007-2011. Technical Services Quarterly, 30(2), 166-186. doi:10.1080/07317131.2013.759825

Gustafson-Sundell, N. (2011). Think locally: A prudent approach to electronic resource management systems. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 23(2), 126-141. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2011.576955
Distance librarians asked to serve on their library’s electronic resources management system (ERMS) task force can use Northwestern University Library’s (NUL) prep work as background reading to avoid the unnecessary task of “reinventing the wheel.” Opining that “local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail,” Gustafson-Sundell’s article offers a summary of NUL’s experience with researching ERMS. Appropriately characterizing their approach as “prudent,” the author mentions a 2004/2005 investigative conclusion that then-available products did not yet meet their needs. A 2009 follow-up convinced them that advances in the intervening years were sufficient to proceed, and that is when the search (and the article) took off. The article, beginning with an extensive literature review, considers the development and analysis of a short list of products and concludes by saying that NUL has made satisfactory progress toward positioning themselves to begin the implementation of an ERM should the change become desirable. C. Blevens

Han, N. (2012). Managing a 21st-century library collection. The Serials Librarian, 63(2), 158-169. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2012.700781 
Han thoroughly summarizes the keynote given by Matt Goldner, OCLC Product & Technology Advocate, at the MidSouth eResources Symposium in 2011.  After setting the stage with a discussion of trends in e-books, Goldner’s main focus was on solutions.  He presented evidence on the impact of the e-revolution on academic libraries in particular.  An OCLC survey identified the areas of concern to be licensing, the future of higher education, facilities issues, and the visibility of library collections. He then discussed 1) the benefits of switching to e-format, include quick and remote access, ease of discovery, and the amount of content available especially when libraries are embedded in Google Scholar; 2) the issues librarians are having with the e-revolution, including students’ preferences to start their research with search engines and Wikipedia with the library site entering in later in the process. When students get to the library site, they expect a Google experience, creating website design issues for libraries. Additionally there are workflow and licensing issues for librarians; and 3) what librarians should be focusing on how to best serve their patrons including getting into the user’s workflow for searching and social media,  working with publishers to develop better and more consistent purchasing options, developing a well-maintained knowledge base  to provide access to all the publisher changes in title access,  developing resources sharing models by being able to identify who subscribes to which packages, working with ILS vendors to develop  a unified workflow not built on separate pieces,  developing better interlibrary loan,  improving rights practices for sharing and course reserves, and working with lawmakers on copyright issues. He concluded by urging librarians to engage and work with different players from the user, to the content providers, to system providers. B. Avery

Hartnett, E., Beh, E., Resnick, T., Ugaz, A., & Tabacaru, S. (2013). Charting a course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries’ experience implementing an open-source electronic resources management system. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 25(1), 16-38. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2013.760402

Imre, A., Hartnett, E., & Hiatt, C. D. (2013). CORAL: Implementing an open-source ERM system. Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 224-234. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.760414

Jensen, K. (2013). Managing library electronic resources using Google sites. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 25(2), 115-123. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2013.785289

Joshipura, S., & Redman, B. J. (2012). Biz of Acq — Navigating a collaborative ERMS trail from planning to implementation at ASU Libraries. Against the Grain, 24(1), 46-48.
Distance librarians who work in a complex environment characterized by high FTE and multiple campus libraries would do well to read the Joshipura and Redman article on Arizona State University’s (ASU) implementation of an electronic resources management system (ERMS). The authors provide a personal experience focus that features their challenge of coordinating four campuses, each with a separate director, unique collection development decisions, licensing agreements, and access to electronic resources. As a result of an outside consultant’s recommendation to consolidate the selection and access of e-resources and an ERMS, a task group oversaw the implementation of Innovative Interface’s product. Seven subgroups, whose tasks are briefly described, handled workflow, coding, public access, web form, marketing, staff training, and timelines for populating the ERMS. Employing a best practice of never underestimating or stinting on the planning time before launching the product, ASU library staff describe fourteen months spent on planning the implementation and six months spent on populating the data before releasing it to library staff and users. Future plans include improving the public interface and eBook management. C. Blevens

Kandpal, K. N., Rawat, S. S., & Vithal, K. S. R. (2013). Use of e-resources by undergraduate students of NTR College of Veterinary Science. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 33(5), 394-398. doi:10.14429/djlit.33.5104

Kerr, S. (2010). Electronic resource management systems: The promise and disappointment. A report of the program presented by the ALCTS Continuing Resources Section, Acquisitions Committee, American Library Association Annual Conference, Chicago, July 2009. Technical Services Quarterly, 27(3), 297-300. doi:10.1080/07317131003766199
The Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) held a program to discuss the success and challenges involved when a library implements an electronic resource managment (ERM) system. Kerr summarizes the program, which featured presentations by four librarians with ERM system experience. The librarians discussed the pros and cons of specific vendors’ systems; such a candid review may prove helpful to libraries shopping for an ERM system. The program speakers covered other important considerations as well, such as the decision-making process that goes into purchasing an ERM system and the preparations and adjustments needed to successfully implement a system. Acquisitions and systems librarians whose institutions are considering an ERM system will benefit from this summary of the ALCTS program. R. Miller

Khater, P., & Appleton, B. (2010). Using a local electronic resource management system to manage e-journals: Can it get any better than this? Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 250-256. doi:10.1080/03615261003626016
This recorded session presents a locally-developed system by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries for managing electronic resources. Khater stresses the importance of evaluating the needs of an institution and its patron base when determining the development and maintenance of system.  Factors such as number of institutions, population demographics, and volume and types of collections are identified as key considerations when optimizing a system for both workflow functionality and user convenience. Benefits of the homegrown system include having a system custom tailored to the organizational need, while drawbacks are identified as the requirement of more time by staff for upkeep and the reduction of staff available for other projects. Recommendations on how to approach future development are addressed as dependent upon factors unique to an institution. R. Cassidy

Kingan, R. (2010). Electronic Resource Management Systems: Manage online library spend and increase the value of the library. Legal Information Management, 10(4), 271-274. doi:10.1017/S1472669610000927
Author Rory Kingan describes how law librarians can develop electronic resource management (ERM) software systems as tools for usage monitoring of online subscription services, automatic logons and access password controls, and cost recoveries (i.e., monitor or cancel any online services that are seldom used). Through the use of assigned client numbers, some ERM systems can record any vendor costs or fees incurred during research, and can also prevent users from linking to an out-of-contract database. Kingan, Chief Technology Officer at Priory Solutions, presented this paper at the British and Irish Association of Law Librarians Conference in June 2010. At Priory Solutions, he is responsible for Research Monitor, an ERM product that is used primarily by law firms. L. Jefferson

Klusendorf, H. (2010). Measure for measure: Librarians want a more effective ERM, Results from ERM Systems Usage Trends Survey. Against the Grain, 22(2), 34-40.
Author Heather Klusendorf analyzes the data collected from over 260 librarians who responded to the ERM (e-resource management) Systems Usage Trends Survey. The survey results reveal how librarians rate specific ERM system features that are utilized to improve management of e-book and e-journal collections, workflows, orders and budget information, license terms and conditions, and online databases. While most librarians find the implementation of ERM systems satisfactory, the consensus among them is that ERM systems need improvement and can be too demanding on staff time. Klusendorf concludes that, as e-resources become increasingly important to libraries, vendors need to improve the ERM systems so that this product will become a more effective e-resource collection development tool. L. Jefferson

Koehn, S. L., & Hawamdeh, S. (2010). The acquisition and management of electronic resources: Can use justify cost? Library Quarterly, 80(2), 161-174.
As electronic resources increasingly require a license to access (in contrast to the traditional pay-for-ownership model) and as the demand of such collections continues to grow, public libraries face challenges in balancing the needs of patrons within the limits of budgets, policies, and vendor contracts. This article explores a case study by the Tulsa City-County Library in which usage statistics and additional selection criteria, such as resource depth of coverage and ease of use, are highlighted as essential to the acquisition process. By examining various factors over a predetermined time period, the study models one possible method for determining justification for acquisition and cost valuation of resources. The authors stress that anomalies such as decreasing cost-per-search should serve as considerations for continued coverage but should not act as the only element in the selection process. R. Cassidy

Kornblau, A.I., Strudwick, J. & Miller, W. (2012). How web-scale discovery changes the conversation: The questions librarians should ask themselves. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 19(2-4), 144-162. doi: 10.1080/10691316.2012.693443
The authors discuss important considerations in choosing and implementing a discovery service based on their experience with Summon at Florida Atlantic University Libraries. The article includes questions for vendors about discovery systems’ specific capabilities, recommendations for which departments in the library should be involved in choosing a system, and potential interoperability problems. There are also suggestions about customization, marketing, and assessment once a discovery system is in place. This article is worth reading for librarians investigating new discovery tools or interested in assessing their current system. K. Conerton

Krusmark, K., Throumoulos, M., & Romaine, S. (2010). Registration ruminations: Do your end users have access to everything you’ve paid for? Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 240-243. doi:10.1080/03615261003625943
This session confronts the challenges associated with managing e-journals (i.e., registration, activation, lack of staff, update tracking, license details, and electronic resource management (ERM) system data population). Mary Throumoulos from Rollins College Library provides an overview of her workflow organization and the tools used to complete “e” registration. Audience members express similar encounters with the process and the presenters noted usage as a key factor in retention decisions. The Shared Electronic Resource Understanding (SERU) and a National Information Standards Organization (NISO) registration are two initiatives working to simplify and streamline the process between publishers and agents. L. Poelvoorde

Kuehl, J., Holley, B., Grogg, J., & Davis, S. (2010). ER options for acquisitions: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 188-192. doi:10.1080/03615261003625745
In this article, Davis reports on a panel presentation by Kuehl, Holley, and Grogg, who discussed the challenges of managing electronic resources and the role that a subscription agent can play in the process. Kuehl is a subscription agent for EBSCO Information Services, and she described the services an agent provides, including alerts to library users, providing information on price changes and open access titles, and assisting with registration and licensing. Holley spoke from an acquisitions librarian’s viewpoint: at the University of Alabama, Holley has found the services of a subscription agent to be very helpful in managing the complexities of electronic serials acquisitions. Holley did note some disadvantages of using an agent, for example, the cost, which is often questioned by library administration. Grogg, who manages e-resources at the University of Alabama, spoke of agents as “metamediaries,” a single contact-point when dealing with a large system (such as EBSCO). This article will be of interest to distance librarians who increasingly find themselves dealing with the challenges of acquiring e-resources and making them available to library users. R. Miller

Lamothe, A. R. (2012). Comparing usage patterns recorded between an electronic reference and an electronic monograph collection: The differences in searches and full-text content viewings. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(2), 101-118. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.684333
In this article, Lamothe analyzed online usage of electronic reference and electronic monograph collections at the J.N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University from 2002 to 2010. The author specifically focused on two electronic reference collections, Virtual Reference Library and Oxford Digital Reference Shelf, and two electronic monograph collections, NetLibrary and Springer. These two types of collections were compared in order to observe usage patterns. Lamothe also discussed the history of e-books at the library, describing the shift from obtaining only aggregated packages from the NetLibrary platform (where usage was low), a consequent shift to individual title purchases, and then a hybrid purchasing of both aggregated as well as individual e-monographs.  Lamothe considered how and why electronic reference books and electronic monographs are used by patrons. One possible reason proposed for the high use of electronic reference books is that they can be easily and quickly used to locate information.

A number of relationships were measured using ratios and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Of specific focus was the coefficient calculated to measure the relationship between collection size and its use, which had a a strong correlation.However, it appears that the smaller e-reference collection exhibited greater use than e-monographs as proportional to size. There were also strong correlations between searches and e-books, viewing and e-books, as well as viewing and searches. Additionally, statistics showed that a greater portion of the reference collection tends to be used by patrons, with between 80 percent to 100 percent of e-reference collections being used by patrons as compared to only 10 percent to 11 percent of e-monographs. Overall, e-reference use has been consistently high and growth has been constant. On the other hand, e-monographs were slow to increase in usage and searches or viewings, and they displayed diverse growth rates. J. Kolendo

Leffler, J. J., & Zuniga, H. A. (2010). Development and use of license forms for libraries with and without electronic resource management systems. Technical Services Quarterly, 27(3), 279-288. doi:10.1080/07317131003765977
Properly understanding and recording electronic resource license information is challenging and time consuming. The Electronic Resources Librarian at the University of Northern Colorado developed a form to streamline and standardize the process of entering data into the Electronic Resources Management (ERM) system. The information recorded on such forms is useful to any library that maintains electronic resource license agreements, with or without ERM systems. Identifying product coverage in the license, keeping track of renewal dates, and the permission to download and integrate electronic resources are a few of the potential applications for non-ERM libraries. L. Poelvoorde

Levy, F., Pyles, R., Szarejko, C., & Wyatt, L. (2012). Developing an electronic repository for undergraduate theses. Honors in Practice, 8, 135-146.
Although electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) have been published by universities and indexed by academic libraries since the late 1990s, focus on undergraduate capstone or thesis projects has remained low. This trend-setting case study examines the steps taken by librarians at the East Tennessee State University to develop a repository for these undergraduate works. Initially two assessments were conducted to examine the feasibility of this project. The first surveyed librarians and staff at 17 peer institutions and 8 non-peer institutions for their practices regarding the electronic publication of undergraduate theses. Despite the universal availability of the projects (100% surveyed provided physical access to the works to the public) among both peer and non-peer institutions, most institutions did not provide electronic access either through a repository or through a library online catalog. The second assessment examined potential systems that might be employed as an institutional repository for undergraduate works. The assessment included an examination of the open source software solutions DSpace and Eprints, as well as the proprietary systems Content Pro, Digitool, and Digital Commons. Although bepress’ Digital Commons was their first choice, Eprints was chosen as the first step in their project with the hope that funds for the bepress system would be raised in due time. The first few years of the project resulted in the development of important submission workflows, tutorials and intellectual property policies based on Duke University. Important future directions included examining the actual impact that access to undergraduate theses would have on student learning outcomes. This article provides a necessary analysis of the intellectual value that undergraduate papers can add to a college or university. A. Weiss

Li, J., Robertson, J. C., Wright, A. L., & Britton, R. M. (2012). E-book management: A multiple access points approach. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 9(2), 103-113. doi:10.1080/15424065.2012.680344
The authors discuss the challenges that University of South Alabama Baugh Biomedical Library staff faced in trying to simplify e-book searching and provide access to its growing e-book collections. The difficulty in providing access stems from the fact that no single tool currently exists that can perform highly effective cross-platform searches. Baugh Biomedical Library obtains clinical e-books from five vendors: MD Consult, AccessMedicine, OVID, STAT!Ref and R2 Digital Library, and although each provides excellent content, locating the content is problematic.

Since there was no singular solution for providing access to all of their e-books, the authors hold that the best way to currently provide access to their e-book collections is through a multiple search option approach in which the shortcomings of one tool will be compensated by another’s strengths. In this article, the authors describe the different approaches used in providing access, which include the online catalog, ERM, Worldcat Local Quickstart, a federated search engine, and homegrown alphabetical and subject lists. Each approach does present drawbacks; for instance, the online catalog is unable to search via full-text or chapter title words, and the ERM-Serials Solutions 360 Core can perform basic “title begins with” or “title contain all words” searches but it cannot search e-book content. However, at this time the multiple access point approach appears to be working, and since the addition of the several access points e-book search page, usage has increased. J. Kolendo

Mapulanga, P. (2012). Impact of the optic fibre network and increased bandwidth on e-resources access in Malawi. OCLC Systems & Services, 28(4), 221-234. doi:10.1108/10650751211279157
To understand the impact of Malawi’s fiber-optic network and increased bandwidth on e-resource access between the years of 2006 and 2012, this study seeks to: 1) determine bandwidth levels for libraries in Malawi pre- and post-installation of a fiber-optic network; 2) understand user trends in Malawi’s libraries; 3) explore the challenges facing Malawi to provide access to e-resources; and 4) ascertain the appropriate strategies to combat the challenges the country faces in providing e-resources. The study provides much information concerning pricing and information transmission rates. The focus here is on Malawi, but similar self-analysis would be relevant to almost every educational institution. This article would be helpful to library administrators, systems librarians and those involved in e-resources. D. McKay

Massie, D. (2012). Interlending trending: A look ahead from atop the data pile. Interlending & Document Supply, 40(2), 125-130. doi:10.1108/02641611211239623
In this paper, Dennis Massie analyzes the five forces he sees affecting the future of interlibrary loan and document delivery services. Due to the increase in usage of interlibrary loan services over the past ten years by the Association of Research Libraries, the factors, or forces as Massie calls them, impacting those services have increased in breadth and depth. Massie identifies those forces as transitioning from print to electronic collections, managing legacy print collections, measuring the implications of mass digitization projects, weighing the competition and managing copyright issues. Massie analyzes each of these forces carefully, examining the scenarios each force presents.  He highlights the value of print collections while identifying the costs and threats involved in managing large collections that have low usage. He looks favorably on competition for libraries as motivating them to do better, but recognizes that competitors are often out to replace what libraries do. He identifies the challenges orphan works, which are those items where determining the copyright status is difficult, present, but also motivates librarians to “push the envelope” when it comes to copyright issues and access.  M. Venner

McCracken, P., & Womack, K. (2010). KBART: Improving access to electronic resources through better linking. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 232-239. doi:10.1080/03615261003625927
This article summarizes McCracken and Womack’s presentation at the 24th annual North American Serials Interest Group (NASIG) conference held in Asheville, North Carolina, June 3-7, 2009. It describes the progress of the KBART (Knowledge Bases and Related Tools) project, which seeks to establish best practices for content providers, aggregators, electronic resource management (ERM) system vendors, and libraries to improve library patrons’ access to electronic resources. In addition to briefly reviewing OpenURL and the KBART project, the article identifies the working group’s concerns about the current use of OpenURL and proposed solutions to those problems. It then describes the project’s deliverables, including a report that will present best practice recommendations on what type of data to provide and how to deliver it. McCracken and Womack present the fifteen metadata fields that the report will recommend be delivered. The authors also identify issues for future discussion. B. Smith

McQuillan, B., Fattig, K., Kemp, R., Stamison, C., & England, D. (2010). Electronic resource management system integration strategies: Opportunity, challenge or promise? Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 106-116. doi:10.1080/03615261003622734
Over the last several years, there has been a significant shift in serials subscriptions from print to electronic resources, making the implementation of electronic resource management (ERM) systems a priority for academic libraries. This article summarizes a panel discussion on ERM system implementation, in which librarians and ERM vendors shared their experiences setting up ERM systems, and discussed issues with licensing and budget strategies for print versus electronic resources, changes in library workflows related to ERM system implementation, and the gathering and interpretation of usage statistics. The article concludes with the panelists’ discussion of the future of ERM systems. P. Johnson

Mi, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). Implementation and application of CORAL: An open source ERM system. Collection Management, 38(1), 75-79. doi:10.1080/01462679.2012.730493

Moeller, P. D. (2013). Literature of acquisitions in review, 2010-11. Library Resources & Technical Services, 57(2), 87-99. 

Noh, Y. (2012). A study measuring the performance of electronic resources in academic libraries. Aslib Proceedings, 64(2), 134-153. doi:10.1108/00012531211215169
Noh delves into measuring performance of electronic resources as well as argues that electronic resources should be weighed more in library evaluation in order to improve the reliability and accuracy of library evaluation overall. In Korea on average, according to this study, libraries spent around 50 percent of their budgets on e-resources, and the author argues that the evaluation of e-resources should be raised to a corresponding level. The article also re-introduces evaluation criteria (created in an earlier study by Noh, 2010) and finalized after it was approved by a Delphi survey. Noh uses the criteria to evaluate e-resources efficiency by surveying Korean university libraries, providing an input-output analysis of electronic resources in academic libraries.

Input and output is clearly defined in the study. Calculated by percentage, the input-output ratio revealed that the efficiency of e-resources of Korean academic libraries reached 88.20 percent, which is not very high as, statistically speaking, input-output must exceed 100 percent to show high efficiency.

Additionally, three questions guided the author’s study, all of which are answered in the article: First, will the ratio of e-resources in the library’s overall budget be 40 percent or more? The answer is affirmative, as the e-resources budget on average is 50 percent of the total library budget. Second, will calculating the overall score of each academic library and each sector’s score be useful in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each library? As evaluation indicators of e-resources were clearly divided, marked, and rated that is also answered in the affirmative. Third, can each academic library show 100 percent efficiency in the evaluation of electronic resources? The answer was negative, as efficiency did not exceed 100 percent. J. Kolendo

OCLC E-resource advisory council continues work. (2013). Advanced Technology Libraries, 42(10), 9-10. 

Pesch, O. (2010). Re-inventing the ERM: EBSCO takes a new approach to e-resources management with the release of ERM Essentials. Against the Grain, 22(2), 32-34.
Oliver Pesch, Chief Strategist, E-Resources, for EBSCO Information Services, discusses the Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) report that recommended functional specifications for electronic resource management (ERM) systems. The author summarizes survey responses gathered from EBSCO customers regarding their views on the challenges of electronic resource management. Pesch outlines how EBSCO’s product ERM Essentials addresses these issues, for example, licensing, subscription management, holdings updates, and statistical analysis, and helps libraries save significant staff time and money managing electronic resources. P. Johnson

Ratto, B.G., & Lynch, A. (2012). The embedded textbook: Collaborating with faculty to employ library subscription e-books as core course text. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(1), 1-16. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.656070
The three purposes of this article are: 1) to introduce a study that measured student perceptions of a library-owned e-textbook option compared to both a traditional textbook only option and a combination e-book and textbook option; 2) to provide an outline for others to replicate a similar textbook alternative; and 3) to illustrate the “positive impact” on student learning that library and teaching faculty collaboration can achieve. The article contains background information, a literature review, the study’s timeline, six tables, a large appendix containing a concise, bulleted timeline and the surveys that the authors used. The authors conclude that the admittedly small study at Southern New Hampshire University indicates that students are willing to rely on e-books as the primary text for core course content. This article is insightful for those seeking to employ e-books in place of traditional textbooks and for those involved in acquiring and providing access to digital resources. D. McKay

Regolini, A., Gentilini, E., Baligand, M., & Jannès-Ober, E. (2013). “Sustainable management” of commercial electronic research resources and of its use in bibliometrics. Library Management, 34(1), 31-39. doi:10.1108/01435121311298252

Ruttenberg, C. (2013). Finding the tool that fits best: Cloud based task management for electronic resources. OCLC Systems and Services, 29(3), 151-160. doi:10.1108/OCLC-10-2012-0040

Rux, E., & Borchert, T. (2010). You have HOW MANY spreadsheets? Rethinking electronic resource management. Computers In Libraries, 30(8), 21-25.
There is an explosion of electronic resources that need to be managed by libraries as well as their interconnectedness to print resources. This causes several issues for librarians involved in various aspects of these materials. The authors discuss the steps and processes used to incorporate an electronic resource management (ERM) system at their library. They did the entire process in less than one calendar year. The library, after consideration of the pros/cons, expenses of various systems, and their own workflow, decided to use Zoho Creater ( as their ERM system. The Zoho database is a tool to organize information about various resources in one place, add, modify, and delete information in real time, enable on-going customization, and provide easy access to data for routines, tasks, and reports. Although Zoho is user-friendly and easy to adapt and implement, the authors discuss some of the challenges associated with this ERM system. One issue still under investigation is the backup of the data on the Zoho servers. However, the authors do indicate they feel secure because of routine server maintenance provided by Zoho. This system allowed the library to gain control of the overwhelming task of managing electronic resources. The benefit for distance students is the streamlined approach they will see when searching for electronic holdings the library provides. T. Garrett

Ryan, C. E., Nelson, R., & Brown, L. A. (2010). Online serials access X-game: Surviving a vendor change for online serials access and thriving! Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 204-214. doi:10.1080/03615261003625794
This article provides practical and helpful suggestions for how to select and implement a new Electronic Access Management Service. The authors walk the reader through the process that occurred over eight months at their own library, from the reasons that motivated the library to change vendors, through the decision making process, training, and implementation. The authors highlight potential pitfalls and positive experiences during the selection process. The article also includes questions for vendors, clients, and possible administrative scenarios in the Appendix. The article will be useful for distance librarians who also manage electronic resources. E. Leonard

Silton, K., & LeMaistre, T. (2011). Innovative Interfaces’ Electronic Resources Management System: A survey on the state of implementation and usage. Serials Review, 37(2), 80-86. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2011.01.002
This 2009 study reviewed librarians’ experiences with implementation and use of Innovative Interfaces’ (III) Electronic Resources Management System (ERMS). The study was developed to ascertain if the difficulties reported in published case studies were representative of many III ERM users, especially if such implementations might not be completed or are extremely difficult to complete, and how workflow was affected. The authors gathered data from 61 academic, special, and corporate libraries on the satisfaction of their own implementations, impact on patrons, and impact on workflow. Results confirmed case study reports that III’s ERMS was difficult or impossible to complete even though it improved workflow and improved patron access. The article will be useful for distance librarians who also manage electronic resources. E. Leonard

Stachokas, G. (2010). Implementing the 360 Suite at Indiana State University. Against the Grain, 22(2), 30-32.
This article discusses the implementation process of the Serials Solution 360 Suite at Indiana State University. Serial Solution’s 360 suite is an electronic resource management system (ERM) enabling librarians to streamline electronic products for patron usage and for staff to manage them in an efficient manner. The 360 ERM has four parts: 360 Core, which provides access to KnowledgeWorks; 360 Link, which is the link resolver; 360 Counter, a tool for the retrieval, storage, and manipulation of usage statistics; and 360 MARC Updates, which is used to update bibliographic records in the library’s ILS. In the discussions, the author elaborates on issues that arose and how they were addressed for patrons and library staff. The author discusses some of the workarounds that had to be created for both the patron-side and the library staff-side of the ERM and simply contacting Serials Solution for tech support. A system like this provides easy access to support distance learning. The portal allows the library to streamline electronic resources for patron needs and usage, as well as point patrons to print resources. Today’s students will not spend hours conducting research; they would rather just “Google” it. This will improve their ability to find specific content they need more efficiently and effectively. T. Garrett

Staines, H. (2010). How can publishers better support ERMs? Against the Grain, 22(2), 26-28.
In considering publisher support for electronic resource management systems (ERMs), the author assesses the needs of libraries and asks whether customers’ needs are being met by publishers and vendors. Communication is the important factor between these key players to make the use of ERMs successful in libraries. Simplifying acquisition, licensing, and creating a standard for access and linking of metadata are important in bridging the gap between vendors, publishers, and libraries. The ability for libraries to store and update publisher information when it is constantly changing is one suggestion. Publishers and vendors should provide consistent access and technical support, with human contact, along with package reviews and possibly an automated renewal process. While these issues have seen improvement since 2010, the ERMs being used are still considered first generation and still cause technical issues. The only way that publishers can support ERMs is by open communication with vendors and libraries. D. Moench

Stewart, C. (2011). Metrics: Keeping track of it all: The challenge of measuring digital resource usage. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(2), 174-176. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2011.01.002
Stewart describes the evolution and current state of some of the key methods to measure access and use of electronic resources. The article highlights the various quantitative tools, from the development of the OpenURL framework and link resolvers to the widespread adoption of the SUSHI (Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative) protocol and the COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) standards. Although third party providers and integrated library systems offer tools to measure the use of digital resources, they are costly, so most libraries currently rely on vendor-supplied data. To complement quantitative data, web-based surveys, such as ACRL’s MINES (Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Services) project, can provide more descriptive information about how online resources and services are used. Using both quantitative and qualitative tools to obtain a more complete framework for analyzing e-resource usage will enable more informed collection development decisions. B. Smith

Taylor, D., Dodd, F., & Murphy, J. (2010). Open-source Electronic Resource Management System: A collaborative implementation. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 61-72. doi:10.1080/03615261003623039
This article details the processes and collaboration necessary to implement a new electronic resources management system shared between several regional post-secondary libraries. As part of a suite of library discovery tools, the open-source ERM system offers centralized licensing data. Positive changes at Simon Fraser University (SFU) include the standardization of electronic resources records which streamline employee workflow by reducing the amount of printed forms. A major benefit for the public is more reliable searches across three interfaces: catalog, e-journals list, and databases. Challenges for SFU include synchronizing disparate data and the maintenance of virtual linking between Millennium bibliographic records and the ERM system. The implementation at University of Prince Edwards Island has led to more accessible and accurate financial information and improved availability of licensing information on the use of articles in electronic reserves and course packs. Future improvements for the ERM system include a change audit system to provide new record alerts and the ability to upload usage statistics. Libraries interested in the possibilities of collaborative uses of open-source technology for resource management will benefit from this article. D. Greenfield

Timm, D. F. (2012). STAT!Ref: An online source of health care reference materials. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 9(3), 214-222. doi:10.1080/15424065.2012.707845
STAT!Ref is an online health library that was started in 1987 by Dr. Richard Sugden, who perceived a need for quick access to health information. This article describes STAT!Ref as of mid-2012, when it offered over 300 resources in 50 disciplines, including internal medicine, nursing, and allied health. STAT!Ref aggregates full-text books, point-of-care tools, evidence-based materials and more from a variety of publishers and other sources. The author surveys the components of STAT!Ref in detail and leads the reader through the various functions. These include alphabetical browsing by title, filtered browsing by discipline, basic and advanced searching, and navigating through search results. Subscribers can be individuals or institutions and titles are chosen a la carte. Subscription prices depend on the titles and components selected. STAT!Ref includes several value-added resources with each subscription at no extra cost. These include Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, MedCalc 3000 (a collection of more than 400 clinical calculators, criteria sets, and decision trees), and automated searches of PubMed and the National Guidelines Clearing House that display whenever pertinent results are available for the search performed. Mobile apps are available on several platforms for point-of-care and distance education use. This article provides a thorough review of the content, features and functionality of STAT!Ref, though a few specifics may have changed since its publication.  M. Heyd

Tosaka, Y., Weng, C., & Beh, E. (2013). Exercising creativity to implement an institutional repository with limited resources. Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 254-262. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.761066

Tripathi, M., & Jeevan, V. K. J. (2013). A selective review of research on e-resource usage in academic libraries. Library Review, 62(3), 134-156. doi:10.1108/00242531311329473

Tripathi, M., Kumar, S., & Jeevan, V. K. J. (2012). Understanding utilization of E-journals through usage reports from aggregators in a distance education university. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(1), 22-42. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.657103
This quantitative, explanatory research study was undertaken to address the concerns of educational administrators at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) about the return on investment of electronic resources. The authors of the study examined usage of ProQuest, EBSCO, JSTOR, and Project MUSE databases at IGNOU in 2008. Publisher-provided, COUNTER 3.0-compliant reports were used as secondary data in this study. The data was used to identify user browsing and search patterns, and format preferences for activities such as downloading and printing. Most frequently used e-journals in database collections were also identified. As a result of this research, the authors urge librarians to be sure that they understand vendor-provided reports before drawing conclusions, and they recommend that librarians not rely solely on cost per download to make e-resource retention decisions. They advise also considering uniqueness of database content, faculty research interests, the number of students and faculty in each discipline, and the impact of patrons’ research disciplines on their access behaviors. C. Barboza

Vasileiou, M., Rowley, J., & Hartley, R. (2012). The e-book management framework: The management of e-books in academic libraries and its challenges. Library & Information Science Research, 34(4), 282-291. doi:10:1016/j.lisr.2012.06.005
This article proposes a framework for the management of e-book collections in academic libraries by attempting to answer four questions: 1) What are the distinct and significant stages in the e-book management process in academic libraries?; 2) What are the typical activities associated with each stage in the e-book management process in academic libraries?; 3) What do librarians perceive to be the issues and challenges associated with each of the stages in the e-book management process? 4) How might these issues and challenges be resolved in order to deliver an attractive and effective e-book service to students and academic staff? Their findings and discussion cover collection development policy, budgetary matters, discovery, evaluation and selection, license negotiations, cataloging and delivery, marketing, user education, monitoring and reviewing, renewals and cancellations, and confirming the stages of e-book management. A flowchart of the e-book management process is provided. The information provided is relevant to a broad spectrum of librarians and staff. D. McKay

Vasishta, S. (2013). Electronic resources management: A case study of strategic planning at PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh.  International Journal Of Information Dissemination & Technology, 3(1), 52-57. 

White, M. (2012). “Mining the archive: The development of electronic journals.” Ariadne: A Web & Print Magazine of Internet Issues for Librarians & Information Specialists, (70), 19-19.
With an admitted interest in the history of information resource management, the author examines archived editions of Ariadne, an online journal for information professionals, and selects interesting and relevant articles that trace the movement from print to online publication of scholarly journals in the United Kingdom. In doing so, he emphasizes authors who have made significant contributions to the field. Articles published in early issues of Ariadne, reveal how information professionals weighed the advantages and disadvantages of replacing print journals with e-journals. As technology improved and e-journals began to gain a stronghold as the preferred delivery channel, Ariadne articles reflect the many concerns regarding these online initiatives, especially in terms of access, budget, and archiving digital content. The author’s review emphasizes the collaboration within the information profession to address these concerns, and he encourages readers to explore past issues of Ariadne to learn more about the challenges faced as scholarly journals transitioned to online resources. K. Smith

Wilson, K. (2011). Beyond library software: New tools for Electronic Resources Management. Serials Review, 37(4), 294-304. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2011.09.010
Wilson showcases three examples of academic libraries adapting tools and technologies (JIRA, Drupal, Basecamp) not normally used to manage electronic resources (ER) acquisitions, workflows, and metadata. Stanford University adapted the Web-based project and issue tracker, JIRA, to track and centralize electronic resources acquisitions. By way of a user-friendly interface, JIRA’s software acts as a repository for ER purchase information allowing managers to keep track of the work volume in various departments. However, JIRA lacks features to create reminders for subscription renewals and license renegotiations. At Eastern Kentucky University, the free content management system Drupal was used to create an ER management system with highly customizable fields. The online project management tool, Basecamp, is used at University of South Florida to assign workflow tasks and replace paper processing slips that track new orders. All three libraries cited the desire for customization as the main draw to explore new non-library tools yet all experienced some difficulty in the learning curve needed to manage the large amount of options available in each software. Understanding current workflow and processes, exploring free trials, and creating thorough documentation can improve the selection and implementation of new non-library tools. D. Greenfield

Yang, S. (2013). From integrated library systems to library management services: Time for change? Library Hi Tech News, 30(2), 1-8. doi:10.1108/LHTN-02-2013-0006

Zha, X., Li, J., & Yan, Y. (2013). Comparison between Chinese and English electronic resources: A survey of users of Chinese university library. Library Hi Tech, 31(1), 109-122. doi:10.1108/07378831311303967


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