Library Services for Distance Learning: Sixth Bibliography

UNDER CONSTRUCTION ACRL Distance Learning Section

Chapter 7: Information Literacy (Curriculum, Learning Objectives, Assessment)

Alderson-Rice, J. (2010). Training in information searching for postgraduate students in Brussels. ALISS Quarterly, 5(2), 33-36. Retrieved from
Alderson-Rice describes the challenges of working with 220 postgraduate students enrolled at the Brussels School of International Studies (BSIS), a satellite campus of the University of Kent (UoK). The BSIS does not have a physical library; students have access to local university libraries. Because their courses are taught in English and research papers are written in English, however, students prefer the online library resources offered by UoK. Alderson-Rice travels to Brussels annually to teach the students information literacy. Throughout the year she assists BSIS students strictly via email, which provides many challenges. M. Brahme

Anderson, S. A., & Mitchell, E. R. (2012). Life after TILT: Building an interactive information literacy tutorial. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 147–158. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705106
The librarians at Ferris State University were faced with updating their TILT-based information literacy tutorial for use with an online student orientation aimed at all students. However, concerns about lack of time and of HTML and other web skills resulted in the migration of the information literacy tutorial to a custom built learning management system. This allowed for web-based editing, automatically generated page navigation, and for future updates to not be as time-intensive. The article details the process and challenges faced, and provides a link to the current tutorial (you need to create a log-in to access). A survey was sent to faculty to gauge satisfaction with the new information literacy tutorial, but the results are not included in this article.

Appelt, K. M., & Pendell, K. (2010). Assess and invest: Faculty feedback on library tutorials. College & Research Libraries, 71(3), 245-253.
Librarians at the Library of the Health Sciences at the University of Illinois were awarded a council for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Grant for a project to develop Evidenced-Based Practice tutorials for students. The online tutorials were tailored to each of six health science colleges: Applied Health, Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Public Health. Faculty assessment, a key component of this project, was solicited from faculty in each of the colleges. Faculty critiques varied significantly between colleges and amongst individuals, and resulted in substantial changes to the tutorials. Most importantly, faculty expressed appreciation that their opinions mattered and developed a vested interest in the tutorials’ success. M. Brahme

Appleton, L. (2010). LolliPop for learning resources: Information literacy staff training within further education. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42(3), 191-198.
This article reports on a project to implement an information literacy in-service learning program, entitled LolliPop, among a paraprofessional library and learning resources staff at an academic library in Liverpool. Participation in the two-month training program was mandatory for the 22 staff members working within the Further (or adult) Education sector. The training was delivered in a virtual learning environment (VLE), resulting in participants’ simultaneous exposure and familiarization with VLEs, an additional goal of this project. A post-training questionnaire revealed that staffers’ level of comfort with both e-learning and information literacy principles increased as a result of the training. M. Brahme

Bailey, J. (2012). Informal screencasting: Results of a customer-satisfaction survey with a convenience sample. New Library World, 113(1/2), 7–26. doi:10.1108/03074801211199013
Bailey describes a user satisfaction survey for informal screencasts that had been created using Screenjelly (a free service that is no longer available). Informal screencasts were created as a response to reference questions as well as for general instructional use, and the survey was sent to all of Bailey’s liaison departments and to library staff. Response was generally positive, but there was some difference in responses between those who had had a screencast created for them and those who had only watched one as part of the survey, hinting that further studies should focus on those who had an information need. Tips for creating informal screencasts, based on survey comments, are included. Of note to those looking to perform a similar study, the article provides appendices with the text used for the survey solicitation as well as the survey.

Barnhart, A. C., & Stanfield, A. G. (2011). When coming to campus is not an option: Using web conferencing to deliver library instruction. Reference Services Review, 39(1), 58-65.
In an effort to provide library instruction to commuters and online students, librarians at the University of West Georgia experimented with using the web-conferencing software WIMBA. The librarians’ first attempts at teaching classes through WIMBA offered feedback on potential problems, such as technical concerns with connection speed and issues with the microphones. Solutions to these lessons learned included the idea to team-teach the sessions, with one librarian focused on the instruction and the other attentive to the technical aspects. The library intends to increase marketing of this service while also exploring other uses of web conferencing software, such as “virtually” embedding librarians within classes. Further, instead of mimicking face-to-face instruction as has been the case thus far, they aspire to integrate new, innovative ways of teaching information literacy in an online environment. T. Carter

Baro, E. E., & Keboh, T. (2012). Teaching and fostering information literacy programmes: A survey of five university libraries in Africa. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(5), 311–315. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.07.001
This short article documents the results of a qualitative questionnaire sent to one university library in each of five African countries. The results of the survey are presented as a short paragraph plus a table, on a range of information literacy-related topics including how librarians define information literacy, which information literacy standards are used, the methods used to promote information literacy instruction, and barriers to information literacy.

Becker, B. W. (2010). Digital learning object repositories. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 29(1), 86-88. doi:10.1080/01639260903571898
Digital learning objects (DLOs) are reusable Web-developed applications which have been popular for the past several years. DLOs typically contain a variety of media such as video, audio, and photos. This paper discusses types of DLOs such as presentations, simulations, reference materials, quizzes, and more traditional tutorials found at the Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT) Web site ( In the spring of 2008, the team behind this DLO repository surveyed teaching faculty, librarians, and students in order to obtain information about which information literacy DLOs were most important in terms of their needs. The development team then specified criteria to guide the evaluation of DLOs for inclusion in the repository. The survey found that DLOs must be web-based; reusable in other contexts; interactive; have established learning objectives; and be self-contained. The survey also found that students appreciate learning by discovery, practice, and reinforcement. Students found that DLOs can be visually engaging and are most useful when available at the point of need. E. Blankenship

Boden, C. & Murphy, S.  (2012). The latent curriculum: Breaking conceptual barriers to information architecture.  Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library & Information Practice & Research, 7(1), 1-17.
A series of information literacy tutorial videos were created for an online, graduate-level physical therapy course, but Boden and Murphy discovered during in-person reference consultations that many students still had gaps in their understanding of information architecture.  The revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy was used to analyze the tutorials, revealing a “latent curriculum”: unstated learning objectives that were not addressed by the tutorials.  Common challenges encountered by students in the course and the importance of including instruction relating to higher level cognitive processes (Bloom’s Analyze, Evaluate, and Create) are discussed. K. Giles

Bowen, A. (2012). A LibGuides presence in a Blackboard environment. Reference Services Review, 40(3), 449-468. doi:10.1108/00907321211254698
Librarians have long been experts at creating subject guides to help students in their research.Formerly, those subject guides were generally either in print or various web formats. In the early 2000s, web-based content management systems became available for use in higher education. According to Bowen, libraries have endeavored to find a satisfactory way to make the connection between learning management software and subject guides. With the development of LibGuides by Springshare, many librarians felt that they had found the best tool and have adopted this web-publishing platform for their subject guides. LibGuides are currently utilized in approximately 4300 libraries in 60 countries. In this article, Aaron Bowen describes a project at California State University/Chico in which course-level Libguides were placed in Blackboard Vista and Blackboard Learn learning management software. (This is the learning management software that is in place at CSU.)
Bowen lists 5 approaches to embedding library content in learning management software. He utilized a “micro-level embedded button” that linked students to the Libguide for the course. There was a separate hyperlink to an assignment that required use of the library resources included in the LibGuide. After completion of the assignment which required use of the resources listed on the LibGuide, Bowen surveyed students. Student responses indicated that connecting library resources with the LMS is effective in guiding students to library resources if the guide is “embedded prominently and consistently.”

Brahme, M. (2010). The differences in information seeking behavior between distance and residential doctoral students. Ed.D. dissertation, Pepperdine University, United States — California. Retrieved May 7, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3397982).
This dissertation discussed the lack of sufficient information concerning research practices and preferences of doctoral students in the distance education online programs. The study showed the different research methods and the perceived needs and desires of on-campus and off-campus doctoral students. The doctoral students were interviewed by phone, by Skype, or by TappedIn. The dissertation provides insight and ways to address the needs and desires of doctoral students who are fully online and those who have access to on-campus services. L. Cheresnowski

Carlson, K. (2011). Using Adobe Connect to deliver online library instruction to the RN to BSN program. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(4), 172-180. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2011.634979
Carlson explores the implementation and use of a webinar-based library instruction pedagogy for distance RN to BSN nursing students. This article explores setting up the Adobe Connect platform, technical concerns, and assessment. While Carlson’s attempt at assessment was unsuccessful, this article has many useful nuggets for those interested in adding webinars to their information literacy services. S. Clark

Clapp, M. J., Johnson, M., Schwieder, D., & Craig, C. L. (2013). Innovation in the academy: Creating an online information literacy course. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 247–263. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.805663

Clark, S., & Chinburg, S. (2010). Research performance in undergraduates receiving face to face versus online library instruction: A citation analysis. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 530-542. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488599
This paper describes a research study which explored whether or not students in classes would cite a similar ratio of source types where all variables were identical except for the method of course delivery and information literacy training. This study involved upper-division management information systems classes at Rogers State University. The study also examined the differences in information literacy performance by students in online classes vs. traditional face-to-face classes. Citations from research papers assigned to sections of both types of classes were analyzed using the citation analysis process. Study results showed there were virtually no differences between the performances of the online students versus the face-to-face students. The authors anticipate their work will establish a basis for future research involving citation analysis as a means of testing the relative effectiveness of embedded librarian programs and other forms of library instruction. E. Blankenship

Coffman, T. (2013). Using inquiry in the classroom: Developing creative thinkers and information literate students (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Craig, C. L., & Friehs, C. G. (2013). Video and HTML: Testing online tutorial formats with biology students. Journal of Web Librarianship, 7(3), 292–304. doi:10.1080/19322909.2013.815112

Dawson, P. H., Jacobs, D. L., & Yang, S. Q. (2010). An online tutorial for SciFinder for organic chemistry classes. Science & Technology Libraries, 29(4), 298-306. doi:10.1080/0194262X.2010.520251
This article reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of an online tutorial program created to familiarize students with the chemical literature database SciFinder, at Rider University. Previously, the science librarian was expected to demonstrate the entire tutorial in-class in less than thirty minutes, without any hands-on sessions. This program was designed by a partnership of two librarians and one chemistry professor, to be presented in organic chemistry classes. The article also explains how Flash technology was used along with Captivate (Adobe) for design; how storyboards and screenshots were prepared; and how the tutorial functioned during an evaluation phase. On the basis of the feedback from the students, the designers plan revisions of some of the modules. C. George

Dewan, P., & Steeleworthy, M. (2013). Incorporating online instruction in academic libraries: Getting ahead of the curve. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 278–296. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.804020

Dominguez Flores, N. (2010). Online learning communities: Enhancing the acquisition of information skills by undergraduate students of the University of Puerto Rico at Carolina. Ph.D. dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, United States — Florida. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3402939).
The Five Standards of Information Literacy approved by the Association of College and Research Libraries form competencies for information literacy practices. The limitations of the traditional one-shot library instruction session and online tutorials evidenced the need for more interaction, information sharing and contact with librarians to develop the requisite information skills necessary for the students’ course work. Online Learning Communities were investigated and compared with online tutorials and one-shot face-to-face library instruction. The four groups studied were: 1) the control group–No Online Tutorial and No Online Learning Community (One-Shot Face-to-Face Library Instruction); 2) Online Learning Community; 3) Online Tutorials and; 4) Online Tutorials and Online Learning Community. Pre and Post tests were administered to determine the level of acquisition of the information skill sets. Focus groups considered student satisfaction with the treatment they received. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found that the Online Learning Community had the highest mean or average and the lowest standard deviation or dispersal of responses; these results indicate a statistically significant difference. To ensure the validity of these results, a Tukey analysis, to identify patterns of behavior among populations, found the Online Learning Community was the most effective method. Student’s satisfaction with the Online Learning Community was high as was their satisfaction with the Online Tutorial; however, the post test scores for the Online Tutorial were lower. Therefore, online learning communities provided a greater degree of success in supporting students as they developed information skills. M. Giltrud

Dow, M. J., Algarni, M., Blackburn, H., Diller, K., Hallett, K., Musa, A., & Valenti, S. (2012). Infoliteracy@adistance: Creating opportunities to reach (instruct) distance students. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 265-283.
This study builds on the theoretical information seeking model by Marcia J. Bates (2002) but looks at developing a new model investigating online graduate students and their academic information seeking. The authors used an electronic survey and semi-structured interviews to collect their data and after analyzing it, concluded that the students (1) for the most part, acquired information passively through social and online networks, (2) had difficulty accessing online information sources because of low or little information literacy skills, (3) lacked online searching support, and (4) adopted the principle of least effort, except in some cases. The researchers believe that librarians can use this theoretical model to advocate for university resources and as a way to reach out to online faculty and students. Y. Tran

Dowell, D., & Small, F. A. (2011). What is the impact of online resource materials on student self-learning strategies? Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2), 140-148.
The use of online resource materials and self-regulated learning, a form of intentional, focused and conscious learning, were studied in cohorts of students in the first year program from both on-campus and distance education. Metacognition, or thinking about thinking, helps students understand how they think and learn. It is reflective and a higher order intellectual skill that self-regulated learners develop over time. Therefore, the process of monitoring and self-regulating can be adjusted based on cues from the environment such as whether the student achieves the desired grade or some other personal goal. This study examined whether students adopt online environment tools into their self-regulated learning and whether students who adopt these resources achieve higher grades. E-content download, subject site visits and subject outcomes were examined with the thought that online engagement positively impacts student outcomes. The data were analyzed using correlations, simple regression and Tobit regression to assess the online activity and student outcomes. The results found that distance education students strategically incorporated the behaviors of downloading articles and accessing and searching subject sites into their learning strategy. They engaged in the online environment and used online materials somewhat more than on campus students. However, the online subject environment, while significant, had a limited effect on performance outcomes. Distance students had more downloads and site visits. These behaviors positively affected their assessment and subject performance, whereas on-campus students results were negligible by comparison. M. Giltrud

Edwards, M., Kumar, S., & Ochoa, M. (2010). Assessing the value of embedded librarians in an online graduate educational technology course. Public Services Quarterly, 6(2-3), 271-291.
Edwards, Kumar and Ochoa implemented an embedded librarian project in an online graduate educational technology course. After a robust literature review and discussions with faculty, it was decided that two embedded librarians would collaborate on this project. A key factor for their success was meeting with the instructor to discuss the course content and review the assignments. Moreover, the learning outcomes for the information literacy instruction and the subject matter were mapped against the course content. In this way, a situated-cognition or a problem-based learning approach provided authentic activities and an environment for true knowledge acquisition and successful application of skills. Additionally, videos, online synchronous and asynchronous interactions were designed to engage students and facilitate the learning process. Pre- and posttests, qualitative assessments of the online discussion and online feedback from the students were obtained. A combination of open-ended questions and Likert scale responses were presented to students, for example: “Please rate your comfort level using library resources (including databases and catalogs)” and “Do you feel that the results you retrieve in your searches are better than the results you retrieved before watching the embedded librarian session? How? Why?” Such questions targeted specific skills and therefore provided rich, relevant and significant results. Best-practice guidelines acquired from this multifaceted methodology presented valuable indicators for future embedded librarian projects. M. Giltrud

Edwards, Mary E. & Black, Erik W. Contemporary instructor-librarian collaboration: A case study of an online embedded librarian implementation. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 284-311. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2012.705690
Edwards and Black describe the implementation and assessment of an embedded librarian project in an online graduate course. Students were health care professionals seeking Master of Education degrees. The embedded librarian created a variety of learning objects for the course after working with the instructor to determine likely student needs. While the librarian also participated in course discussions, students mostly relied on the learning objects. The project was evaluated through pre- and post-course tests of students’ self-efficacy and skills, citation analysis of final projects, a post-course instructor interview, and librarian observations. The authors include recommendations and resources for librarians new to embedding in online courses. K. Conerton

Gadagin, B. R. (2012). “Workplace Learning: A New Technique for Continuing education To LIS Professionals in Knowledge Society”. SRELS Journal of Information Management, 49(2),175-180.
Gadagin discussed the third industrial revolution, the technological revolution, and how the creation of virtual universities and other changes in universities have shifted conditions and imposed growing financial constraints. This has had an impact on LIS professionals due to a growing virtual and geographic-free environment. Workplace learning is now an essential component for LIS professionals as they develop skills needed to achieve the outcomes needed for employment. This training will also contribute to personal growth as LIS professionals will need to participate in continuing education, collaborative learning, increased self-directed learning, and increased opportunities to interact with others. Conditions of workplace learning will include individual traits, such as motivation, interest, enthusiasm, and dedication, context, autonomy, relevance and benefits, and practice. A “reformation of workplace learning” will need to occur where LIS professionals will receive help in overcoming obstacles and mentoring. The library will become a “cutting edge” institution, a “place of learning”, and a “professional community of learners, where everyone is both a teacher and a learner.” D.B. Geier

Gunn, M., & Miree, C. (2012). Business information literacy teaching at different academic levels: an exploration of skills and implications for instructional design. Journal Of Information Literacy, 6(1), 17-34.
Librarians and academic staff often believe that final-year undergraduate students hold greater research and information literacy (IL) abilities than their first-year counterparts. This study looked at the in IL skills of first-year undergraduate business students versus those in their final year of the program. IL is integrated into most first-year classes at Oakland University (OU) in Michigan. Librarians and academic staff at OU have seen a wide range of IL skills over the years and came to believe that a more systematic inclusion of IL should be offered earlier in the business program. The study looked to answer two questions: (1) Can the same online, subject-specific IL instruction benefit first and final year business students? (2) Can the same approach to online IL instruction be effective for a variety of IL skills? A pre and post-test was developed to go along with the IL online tutorial. The study found a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of all students (within their group: first or final year) after taking the online IL tutorial.  Improvement was also found in both groups after exposure to the online IL tutorial that covered the same content regardless of which group the student was in. R.E. Brown

Harmon, C., & Messina, M. (2013). E-learning in libraries: Best practices. Lanham, MD : The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Held, T. (2010). Blending in: Collaborating with an instructor in an online course. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(4), 153-165.
The author begins this article by listing some ways that librarians can provide services to online courses. He then goes on to describe the process that he went through as an embedded librarian to collaborate with an English professor for an online course. He discusses the decisions they made regarding content, delivery of content, providing services during the course, and assessment and feedback. He concludes the article with things both he and the professor learned during this endeavor and changes they will make as they continue to collaborate for this online course. C. Girton

Hemming, W., Johnstone, B. T., & Montet, M. (2012). Create a sense of place for the mobile learner. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(304), 312-322.
This article explores the notion of “library as place” in a virtual context (“virtual space as place”) with regard to Bucks Community College Library’s online offerings in response to its increasing population of mobile users. A model for the “virtual library as place” is introduced to provide a more holistic understanding of information literacy for online users. Expanding their work as embedded librarians to offering all online library users information literacy support, the authors also detail their library’s journey of creating a comprehensive mobile platform that links users to library resources and services, including different modes of research assistance. With the authors adopting the standpoint of all library users being potential distance or online library users, this article is intended for librarians serving on-campus as well as distance education populations. A. Knight

Hemmig, W., & Montet, M. (2010). The “just for me” virtual library: Enhancing an embedded eBrarian program. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 657-669. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488943
Using a learner-centered information literacy (IL) program, libraries on the three campuses of the Bucks County Pennsylvania Community College, FTE of about 8,000, brought IL instruction into the virtual classroom. Online enrollment in fall 2009 was 3,619, up nearly 35% from fall 2008. A pilot project for the WebCT Introduction to Psychology class began in spring 2008, following the Community College of Vermont model, with a dedicated online library research discussion topic moderated by an embedded librarian, and Adobe Captivate tutorials targeting the specific course assignment. Librarians, added as teaching assistants, posted links to three tutorials and created a library research discussion topic. The Embedded eBrarian Program was launched in summer 2008 in three courses. Fall 2008 was two courses; spring 2009, four courses; summer 2009, three courses; and fall 2009, six. Three full-time librarians, several part-time librarians and a few other full-time librarians were needed for embedding and creation of tutorials. Part-time librarians at the remote campuses created tutorials while on duty at the reference desk. Tutorials needed frequent updating. Added in summer 2009 was Springshare’s LibGuides, remotely hosted electronic content management. Each LibGuide was a one-stop resource to simplify, clarify, and promote each student’s experience. Hit rates were significantly higher than with the tutorials. Interactivity is the critical element for a successful library presence in online courses, including collaboration between librarians and online learning staff, between librarians and online classroom faculty and, most importantly, direct collaboration between online students and the virtual library within their course spaces. H. Gover

Henrich, K. J., & Attebury, R. I. (2013). Using Blackboard to assess course-specific asynchronous library instruction. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 17(3-4), 167–179. doi:10.1080/10875301.2013.772930

Hight, M. (2010). Unlearn what you have learned: Digital disorganization and information literacy instruction. Communications in Information Literacy, 4(1), 12-16. Retrieved from
In creating a fully online upper-division research and information literacy course, the author was influenced by Roy Rosenzweig’s proposal for a Wikipedia-like collaborative and interactive U.S. history textbook. Similarly, the author found persuasive David Weinberger’s observation that traditional organizational schemes mean nothing to students developing research strategies in the random, digital free-for-all of the Internet; instead, researchers create a unique organizational scheme relevant to themselves as individuals. The author further heeded David Scott’s advice to “unlearn what you have learned about controlling your online content” and designed a class including thirteen modules in which students are given problems to solve. Students are directed toward library-based resources, but not restricted to specific searching methods or the use of library vetted material. The first ten modules require students to write a four-to-six paragraph evaluative essay posted on a class wiki at the end of each module. The final three modules require more research and longer writing assignments. Group work is not required, but students often form study groups and the wiki does allow for interaction between students. Without heavily structured course content, the instructor is free to act as a facilitator and guide, responding to students as their individual level of research sophistication develops. Students are given control of their own learning, making every class and library visit meaningful. H. Gover

Jacklin, M. L., & Robinson, K. (2013). Evolution of various library instruction strategies: Using student feedback to create and enhance online active learning assignments. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library & Information Practice & Research, 8(1), 1–21. doi:10.21083/partnership.v8i1.2499

Johnston, N. (2010). Is an online learning module an effective way to develop information literacy skills? Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 41(3), 207-218.
An online information literacy instruction module for first year social work students was implemented at James Cook University, Australia. The content of the module included search strategy development, skills in use of databases and the web, evaluation of information, and writing APA citations as well as orientation to campus learning technologies. Completion of the module was mandatory. The online format offered advantages including student self-pacing and flexibility. Focus group and survey responses to the module were positive. However, some students expressed a preference for a hybrid given follow-up questions. L. Haycock

Jones, S. & Green, L.  (2012). Transforming collaboration. Teacher Librarian, 40(2), 26-31.
Scheduling and staffing issues can make it difficult to provide K-12 students with in-person information literacy instruction. Virtual collaboration allows school librarians and teachers greater flexibility in incorporating library instruction into the curriculum. Online learning units (OLUs), which may be used independently or as a supplement to in-person instruction, also benefit students by allowing them to work at their own pace and gain experience using technology. This article describes several different approaches to virtual collaboration, such as skills-based units and professional development units. Jones and Green provide a graph and scenario to illustrate each approach. The authors also list a number of free online tools that librarians can use in developing OLUs. K. Giles

Kammerlocher, L. L., Couture, J. J., Sparks, O. O., Harp, M. M., & Allgood, T. T. (2011). Information literacy in learning landscapes: Flexible, adaptable, low-cost solutions. Reference Services Review, 39(3), 390-400.
This article details the learning objects created by librarians at Arizona State University. Like their colleagues at other institutions, ASU librarians needed a low-cost way to create and disseminate tutorials and related instructional materials. Additionally, they needed an efficient way of storing, retrieving and managing these learning objects. This resulted in the creation of materials to use and reuse in a number of diverse ways. This article is informative in its description of screencasting tools and the selection of Omeka for a learning object repository. L. Haycock

Kelley, J. (2012). Off the shelf and out of the box: Saving time, meeting outcomes and reaching students with information literacy modules. Journal of Library & Information services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 335-349. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705160
Librarians at the College of DuPage adapted the University of Washington’s Research 101 tutorial to provide information literacy instruction to students in online and independent learning classes. They added local information and more in-depth quizzes. A summer pilot program allowed the librarians to make changes based on student and instructor feedback before making the modules more widely available.

Instructors imported the modules and associated quizzes into their Blackboard shells; they could also modify the modules with subject-specific information. Faculty interest was high thanks to increased emphasis on information literacy in the college’s new general education outcomes. Soon after the modules were introduced, students were already using the unmodified tutorials in multiple classes. The authors discuss ways to avoid this, including marketing the tutorials to specific classes. K. Conerton

Kenton, J., & Blummer, B. (2010). Promoting digital literacy skills: Examples from the literature and implications for academic librarians. Community & Junior College Libraries, 16(2), 84-99.
This literature review offers an overview of concepts like “digital literacy” to give an understanding how digital literacy connects to and differs from information literacy. Digital literacy can bolster information literacy and offers opportunities for librarians to use new technologies to support instruction. Examples of digital literacy instructional programs are included and implications are discussed. L. Haycock

Koury, R., Francis, M. J., Gray, C. J., Jardine, S. J., & Guo, R. (2010). Staying on top of your game and scoring big with Adobe Presenter multimedia tutorials. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 4(4), 208-218.
With increasing off-campus enrollment and uncertain funding, the library team at Idaho State University chose Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in for creating multimedia tutorials. The software was chosen from among many contenders because of its relative ease of use and its low cost. This article provides an overview of the selection process, timeline, design tips, U.S. Rehabilitation Act concerns, evaluation, and marketing of tutorials created with Adobe Presenter. Further attention is given to the challenges and opportunities of the Adobe Presenter plug-in as a creative tool for tutorials used by distance learners. J. Hutson

Kratochvíl, J. (2013). Evaluation of e-learning course, Information Literacy, for medical students. The Electronic Library, 31(1), 55–69. doi:10.1108/02640471311299137

Kumar, S., & Edwards, M. E. (2013). Information literacy and embedded librarianship in an online graduate programme. Journal of Information Literacy, 7(1), 3–17. doi:10.11645/7.1.1722

Kumar, S., & Ochoa, M. (2012). Program-integrated information literacy instruction for online graduate students. Journal Of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(2), 67-78. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2012.684430
Graduate students present additional challenges when developing information literacy instruction, as they require advanced research skills and enter with a spectrum of various existing skills. Kuman and Ochoa (2012) recognized this challenge and addressed it as they designed, implemented, and assessed an instructional series.  Kuman and Ochoa surveyed the graduate students’ perceived information literacy skills prior to program enrollment, as well as their preferences for instruction.  Two methods were utilized to deliver information literacy instruction: pre-created tutorials and synchronous sessions. Over the course of a year, the students received tutorials scaffolding their learning. Synchronous sessions also ran the course of the year, but served more as a response to differences between perceived skills and actual skills or student-generated instructional requests.  Topics covered included general library orientation, database searching, and citation management tools.  An end-of-year survey gauged student perceptions and reactions to the scaffolded learning series.  The findings conclude that students were most satisfied with synchronous online sessions, despite their pre-survey preference for asynchronous. C. Schubert

Ladell-Thomas, J. (2012). Do-It-Yourself Information Literacy: Self-Directed Learning at a Distance. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 376-386.
Using Springshare’s LibGuides, the librarians at Central Michigan University developed learning modules to assist online graduate students with their literature reviews. The instructional design process called ADDIE (analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate), ACRL information literacy standard, and Bloom’s revised taxonomy were used in developing the modules. Self-assessment was built into each section of the module, including a final self-assessment that allowed students to determine if the skills they developed as a result of completing learning modules were effective in their research and writing an effective literature review. Each self-assessment response was anonimized and received by the guide creators. User polls, usage statistics, and a survey were also included to assess whether or not the modules were meeting student needs. The authors found that this was a successful way to provide students with self-directed learning opportunities that fill in gaps in student knowledge about writing an effective literature review. Y. Tran

Laster, B., Blummer, B., & Kenton, J. M. (2010). Psychosemiotics and libraries: Identifying signways in library informational guides, games, and tutorials. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 4(3), 106-118.
Online instructional resources for distance learners are an efficient way to provide information in the virtual arena. The authors of this article suggest that the use of psychosemiotics, that is, signways, enhance the information literacy training of distance education students. Filled with excellent examples that can actually be used, this article provides a rationale, literature review, methodology, findings and limitations of using this approach. J. Hutson

Loesch, M. F. (2011). From both sides, now: Librarians team up with computer scientist to deliver virtual computer-information literacy instruction. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(4), 181-192. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2011.641712
In 2008 two library faculty members and a computer science and mathematics professor at Seton Hall University obtained a grant to develop an online undergraduate course titled “Computers, Information, and the Modern World.” They worked with an instructional designer to construct a self-guided course for distance education students, to be delivered through the Blackboard course management system. Each professor was responsible for specific portions of the course with intensive collaboration during the five month development process. A strong sense of collegiality grew among the faculty members and the result was an online course which met all the requirements of the “Quality Matters (QM) Rubric for Online and Hybrid Courses.” Specifics of the course design and process are described by the author, who concludes that virtual education benefits from such collaborative efforts. J. Hutton

Luo, L. (2010). Web 2.0 integration in information literacy instruction: An overview. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(1), 32-40. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2009.11.004
Employing a web survey and follow-up interviews of information literacy instruction librarians, the author examined their use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, wikis, video sharing, and social bookmarking. Respondents were primarily experienced academic librarians teaching undergraduates in face-to-face non-credit class sessions. The tools were described as particularly useful for teaching the information literacy concepts of information evaluation, information organization, and copyright. Three levels of technology usage were identified: use for the librarian’s own purposes (such as social bookmarking to prepare the course content), use to deliver course content (e.g. YouTube videos, blogs and wikis to publish lesson plans, guides and resources), and use to illustrate information literacy concepts (e.g. social bookmark tagging to illustrate controlled vocabulary, communal editing of wikis to demonstrate need for information evaluation). The study concluded that librarians should keep abreast of evolving Web 2.0 tools and their potential to improve information literacy pedagogy. An appendix of “Resources suggested by respondents to help librarians keep up with the Web 2.0 development” can be found on the web via the article DOI. J. Hutton

Lyons, T., & Warlick, S. (2013). Health sciences information literacy in CMS environments: Learning from our peers. Electronic Library, 31(6), 770–780. doi:10.1108/EL-06-2012-0063

Maddison, T. (2013). Learn where you live: Delivering information literacy instruction in a distributed learning environment. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 264–277. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.806276

Mages, W. K., & Garson, D. S. (2010). Get the cite right: Design and evaluation of a high-quality online citation tutorial. Library and Information Science Research, 32(2), 138-146. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2009.10.004
Development of an online tutorial to teach proper use of APA (American Psychological Association) citation rules was undertaken by research and instruction librarians at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. The need for this multimodal-learning online tool grew out of a live workshop on APA style for incoming graduate students, many of whom were either unable to attend or needed assistance later. The tutorial, APA Exposed: Everything You Always Wanted to Know about APA Format but Were Afraid to Ask (APA Exposed), was subsequently made available to anyone with Internet access. The authors present the results of a mixed-methods study of tutorial participants to identify whether the tutorial meets students’ and scholars’ need for APA citation instruction, and whether the participants’ academic affiliations, background or familiarity with APA style would affect their responses. An online survey to participants solicited tutorial feedback during the one-year beta test. Triangulation with website visitor-tracking data, e-mail correspondence, and Google searching of educational institutions linking to the tutorial aided in substantiating the research results. A majority of participants (98%), both novice and proficient users of APA style, found the tutorial useful and 49% reported substantial improvement in their understanding. Data from survey comments, e-mail correspondence, and links to the tutorial from other academic institution and library websites validated the positive ratings. The authors concluded that quality, accessible online tutorials such as APA Exposed, which integrate principles of universal design for learning and are developed by a team of experts, can deliver effective and meaningful information literacy instruction to the academic community. J. Hutton

Magnuson, M. L. (2013). Web 2.0 and information literacy instruction: Aligning technology with ACRL standards. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(3), 244–251. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2013.01.008

Malingre, M.-L., Serres, A., Sainsot, A., & Men, H. L. (2013). Form@doct: Designing innovative online tutorials for PhD students in France. IFLA Journal, 39(1), 45–57. doi:10.1177/0340035212472950

Miller, R., O’Donnell, E., Pomea, N., Rawson, J., Shepard, R., & Thomes, C. (2010). Library-led faculty workshops: Helping distance educators meet information literacy goals in the online classroom. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 830-856. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488977
An important aspect of meeting information literacy goals for students is for librarians to develop close collaborative relationships with classroom faculty. In an attempt to achieve this, the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has developed faculty workshops aimed at raising the awareness of information literacy standards as well as the awareness of library resources and services among its distance educators. The library-led workshops, as detailed in the article, cover various aspects of information literacy and library research, with the goal of having faculty both create assignments that utilizes library resources and services as well as having faculty help achieve university information literacy standards for students. Although these workshops are time consuming, similar workshops done on a smaller scale can be just as effective in establishing lasting relationships with faculty. L. Ismail

Mussell, J., & Croft, R. (2013). Discovery layers and the distance student: Online search habits of students. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 18–39. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705561

Nazari, M. (2011). A contextual model of information literacy. Journal of Information Science, 37(4), 345-359.
This study details a new contextual model of information literacy (IL) that was developed based on the findings of an exploratory case study of IL in an online distance learning Geographic Information Sciences/Systems (GIS) program. Based on the instructors’ and students’ conceptions and experiences of information, the author identified three new perspectives of IL. Rationale of the new model is presented, as well as how it operates in GIS and implications for pedagogy and methodology. A. Kepsel

Nazari, M., & Webber, S. (2011). What do the conceptions of geo/spatial information tell us about information literacy? Journal of Documentation, 67(2), 334-354.
This paper looks at the nature of information literacy (IL) in the Geographic Information Science/Systems (GIS) discipline, an area that has not been fully studied. Data about information-related conceptions and experiences of students and instructors in an online distance-learning GIS program were collected and analyzed by a grounded approach. Four conceptions of geo/spatial information (GI) were identified, along with three interrelated features. Taking these characteristics into consideration, the authors discuss new competencies of IL needed in the GIS field. A. Kepsel

Nicholson, H. H., & Eva, N. N. (2011). Information literacy instruction for satellite university students. Reference Services Review, 39(3), 497-513.
University of Lethbridge librarians undertook a pilot project to use a low cost and low technology method to provide a real time feel to library instruction for their growing student population taking classes at a distance. Before launching their project they researched the literature to see what had been done in this area for distance students, teaching information literacy and library instruction. In their initial launch they chose not to invest in more sophisticated available technology, which required more expertise and infrastructure. They used something that was easily and freely available, Skype. The authors give rationale for choosing their technology, their course plan and delivery mode. They also provide the advantages and disadvantages that they encountered in the pilot. Their conclusions were found to be successful and received well by the students and faculty, and the librarians intend on continuing to use Skype for individual research consultations. They also want to continue to investigate new technologies that could be utilized to achieve the face-to-face experience from a distance. J. Kind

Niedbala, M., & Fogleman, J. (2010). Taking library 2.0 to the next level: Using a course wiki for teaching information literacy to honors students. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 867-882. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488986
A librarian and a professor collaborated to teach students in an entry-level education class the information literacy skills needed to succeed in college. They attempted to do this through introduction of library instruction, scaffolded learning blocks, and peer evaluation within the context of a wiki. The outcome was successful integration of key Association of College & Research Libraries information literacy standards and an introductory understanding of library research and scholarly writing. The collaborative learning was based on the Net generation’s need for relevance and collaboration. The course writers used backward design and based instructional content on principles of scaffolded learning and writing to learn. Web 2.0 tools can successfully be incorporated in learning to achieve information literacy instruction. J. Kind

Olivas, A. P., & Chan, I. (2013). Beyond the reference desk: A study on the effectiveness of low-cost distance library services at California State University San Marcos. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 40–52. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705177

Ovadia, S. (2010). Writing as an information literacy tool: Bringing writing in the disciplines to an online library class. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 899-908. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488990
Writing in the Disciplines (WID) naturally aligns in a completely online educational experience because of the inherent need for communication by writing. The author took a yearlong program which introduces faculty from all disciplines at his institution how to integrate writing in their classes. An introductory course, LRC103, Internet Research, was chosen to be the first fully online course, using Blackboard as the backbone for the course content and communication. The WID format allowed the students the freedom to write without the burden of comments and criticism. In a one-credit course, it was difficult to have the minimal assignments needed in the WID format, so the instructor broke major assignments into multiple parts. There were many positives from this WID implementation. WID is not a total answer for librarians in the assessment of information literacy standards, but it does allow a good verbal picture of what the student experienced in the research process, whether in a library database or a Google Scholar search. WID allows focus on the process and evaluation of the process rather than the technology. J. Kind

Ovadia, S., & White, S. (2010). Bringing an online credit research class from concept to reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(4), 197-207. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2010.524828
Course designers used a constructivist theoretical basis, designing the course to help students actively construct their own learning experiences. Activities used prior knowledge of searching Google and compared that against searching Academic Search Complete or Lexis Nexis. Blackboard’s discussion board was used to teach students how to be an online student as well as encourage them to reflect upon their experiences. Challenges included student self-motivation and interest levels and unfamiliarity with Microsoft Word; faculty learning how to grade online, and technical issues such as incompatible file formats. Course designers learned to make assignments very explicit, develop a feedback mechanism and develop alternate delivery means in case of technology failure. Faculty were positive about the teaching experience because it forced them to get out of students’ way and relinquish control. N. Mactague

Pastula, M. (2010). Use of information and communication technology to enhance the information literacy skills of distance students. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(3), 77-86. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2010.506360 Pastula, a librarian at Massey University in New Zealand discusses their use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to reach distance students. The article reviews the use of Web-based how-to guides and tutorials, multimedia tutorials using Adobe Captivate and distance consultations using Adobe Connect Presenter.  While Adobe Captivate offers more functionality than a simple PowerPoint slide show, it also has drawbacks, including user unfamiliarity, user lack of viewing software, and users having slow Internet connections. Adobe Connect Presenter allows real-time interaction between librarian and distance student, but requires broadband Internet and more than a minimal level of computer proficiency on the part of students. Pastula also discusses characteristics of adult vs. traditional-aged learners and recommends future research into assessment of single-session, online library instruction. N. Mactague

Rand, A. D. (2013). A model for designing library instruction for distance learning. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1-2), 84–92. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705570

Rapchak, M., & Behary, R. (2013). Digital immigrants, digital learning: Reaching adults through information literacy instruction online. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(4), 349–359. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.842950

Sachs, D. E., Langan, K. A., Leatherman, C. C., & Walters, J. L. (2013). Assessing the effectiveness of online information literacy tutorials for millennial undergraduates. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 20(3/4), 327–351. doi:10.1080/10691316.2013.829365

Searing, S. E. (2013). In it for the long haul: Lessons from a decade of assessment. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 111–142. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705684

Shaffer, B. A. (2011). Graduate student library research skills: Is online instruction effective? Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1-2), 35-55.
This study explores the learning and confidence levels of graduate education students enrolled in online classes at the State University of New York at Oswego. Although existing studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of online information literacy instruction, these studies have not focused on graduate students. In pre- and post-test surveys, learning outcomes were compared in online and face-to-face courses in the education department. Questions included catalog and database search strategies, as well as citation analyses. In addition, students were polled on library research confidence levels and general satisfaction with their instructional experience. The results of the survey indicate that while graduate students’ learning and confidence levels increased significantly in both instructional environments, satisfaction levels were higher in the face-to-face group. Topics for further study include ways to improve satisfaction levels, enhancing the distance learning experience with increased instructional assistance, and early identification of the technical support needs of online learners. L. Marcus

Shell, L., Crawford, S., & Harris, P. (2013). Aided and embedded: The team approach to instructional design. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 143–155. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705627

Stagg, A., & Kimmins, L. (2012). Research skills development through collaborative virtual learning environments. Reference Services Review, 40(1), 61-74.  doi: 10.1108/00907321211203630
Stagg and Kimmins (2012) developed short video tutorials to help first-year Business students develop confidence in their research skills and learn about support resources.  The videos were developed and hosted through the Learning Management System. These videos were designed for Business students, contextualizing the research skills to a specific discipline. The researchers utilized a design-based research approach, allowing for continual gathering of feedback from students and faculty and updating of content based on those findings. All videos were designed using dual coding theory.  Video content also aimed to not just demonstrate the technology, but also incorporate higher order thinking related to research. The research findings indicate highest usage of the videos occurs before assignments are due, as a “just-in-time” resolution to questions. Over a quarter of students were return visitors to the site. Web analytics also identified a wide distribution of users among Business majors. Future directions for evaluation of this project include investigating impact of these videos beyond the first-year. C. Schubert

Stiwinter, K. (2013). Using an interactive online tutorial to expand library instruction. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(1), 15–41. doi:10.1080/10875301.2013.777010

Su, S., & Kuo, J. (2010). Design and development of Web-based information literacy tutorials. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(4), 320-328. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.05.006
The authors examined tutorials in ACRL’s Peer-Reviewed Instructional Materials Online (PRIMO) database to discern trends in online library tutorials (which topics are widely covered) and to determine teaching strategies that are used to good effect in designing library tutorials. Su and Kuo found that the most popular topics covered in tutorials include information search and retrieval, proper citation, and using online catalogs. Other popular categories of topics are information literacy in general (evaluating and using sources) and introducting students to specific library resources and services, for example, through a virtual library tour. Quality teaching techniques employed in the tutorials included clearly stated learning objectives; a modular structure, allowing students to quickly access a specific topic of interest; and a collaborative approach by which students can engage in discussions with other users viewing the tutorial. This study will be useful to instruction librarians as they plan and design their own Web-based tutorials. R. Miller

Sult, L., Mery, Y., Blakiston, R., & Kline, E. (2013). A new approach to online database instruction: Developing the guide on the side. Reference Services Review, 41(1), 125–133. doi:10.1108/00907321311300947

Swarm, D. J., Vincent, K. K., & Gordon, L. C. (2013). A case study for combining technologies for the delivery of information literacy and community to students at remote locations using live synchronous video-conferencing. Journal of Web Librarianship, 7(2), 215–230. doi:10.1080/19322909.2013.785228

Tang, Y., Tseng, H. W., & Morris, B. (2013). Distance learners’ self-efficacy on information seeking and preferences of resources selection. World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2013, 2013(1), 2125–2130.

Thompson, P. (2010). The body in the library: Using collaborative working to develop effective and efficient online information literacy training for distance learners at the University of Portsmouth. SCONUL Focus, (49), 36-39. Retrieved from
Thompson describes how she repurposed an onsite, game-based library orientation for use by distance students at the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom. The orientation, known as “The Body in the Library,” is a murder-mystery scenario in which students follow clues to solve the mystery, learning information-literacy skills along the way. In creating the online game, which was designed to look like a police case file, Thompson worked with a law and criminology librarian as well as with her school’s department for curriculum and quality enhancement. Web analytics and student feedback have shown the early version of the online orientation to be a success. Thompson notes that a critical element in developing this kind of online, game-based orientation is to first determine learning outcomes–what the students need to know–and to develop the scenerio based on those outcomes. R. Miller

Thornes, S. L. (2012). Creating an online tutorial to support information literacy and academic skills development. Journal Of Information Literacy, 6(1), 81-95. doi: 10.11645/6.1.1654
In response to questions by students after an in-person library orientation, Thornes (2012) started the ambitious project of transforming the in-person materials into an asynchronous online tutorial for continued support through the semester.  This study involved graduate students in a Geography program at the University of Leeds. Tutorial creators utilized existing tutorials in their Skills@Library collection of instructional materials and created new tutorial segments to have a single complete research support tutorial. Consultation with faculty, a learning technologist, and the Quality Assurance Agency standards for geography learning outcomes informed the new content developed for the tutorial. Thornes used Articulate software to include a content navigation column for moving between topics and interactive drag-and-drop activities and quizzes. Limitations with the study include the lack of student feedback and the loss of web analytics generated from the learning management system. C. Schubert

Tunon, J., & Ramirez, L. (2010). ABD or EdD? A model of library training for distance doctoral students. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 989-996. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.489004
The authors describe an effective library instruction program designed to serve doctoral students taking classes at a distance. The authors cite literature showing gaps in the research skills of doctoral students; furthermore, the authors note particular challenges they face at Nova Southeastern University (NSU), where they serve a very large, diverse population of distance students working toward a doctorate in education. NSU librarians were able to develop a multifaceted instruction program, taking place online and face-to-face at satellite locations, to reach first-year doctoral students at the students’ points of need. The authors also describe how they are able to actively serve ABD (“all but dissertation”) students who have finished classwork but have become bogged down in the process of writing their dissertations. The instruction program outlined in this article will be of interest to distance librarians serving all types of students, not merely doctoral candidates. R. Miller

Usova, T. (2011). Optimizing our teaching: Hybrid mode of instruction. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library & Information Practice & Research, 6(2), 1-12.
Hybrid instruction, also called blended learning, combines live instruction with online teaching. It has been shown to yield better results than either method used on its own. The Bibliothèque Saint-Jean (BSJ), University of Alberta, began using a hybrid mode of instruction for the library instruction embedded in one of the school’s required classes. The librarians at BSJ combine face-to-face time with students in a traditional classroom setting with online self-directed learning exercises. This article outlines the hybrid model used by the BSJ librarians. Focus is given to how students are engaged before, during, and after the class. The author outlines how each of the ten principles developed by Associate Profession Shibley, author of “10 Ways to Improve Blending Learning Course Design,” are implemented. There is a significant focus on keeping students active during the learning process and reinforcing information through the various methods of instruction. M. Powers

Waite, K., Gannon-Leary, P., & Carr, J. The role and responsibilities of an e-tutor librarian. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 5(4), 129-148.
In problem-based or inquiry-based curriculums the role of tutors has become common. E-tutoring librarians are also becoming more familiar as more information literacy programs are being delivered electronically. The authors outline five responsibilities of the e-tutor and discuss how each plays a part in student learning outcomes: hosting, demonstrating, regulating, responding, and summarizing. The article addresses specific challenges and implications faced by the e-tutor librarian in fulfilling the demands of their role. M. Powers

Walton, G., & Hepworth, M. (2013). Using assignment data to analyse a blended information literacy intervention: A quantitative approach. Journal of Librarianship & Information Science, 45(1), 53–63. doi:10.1177/0961000611434999

Whitehair, K. J. (2010). Reaching part-time distance students in diverse environments. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(3), 96-105.
The library at the University of Kansas Medical Center has developed an effective instruction program for distance learners in the School of Nursing. By combining face-to-face contact when possible with e-mail, chat, and video conferencing, the librarian liaison works with graduate students to enhance their research skills and to help them become more self-reliant and sophisticated users of library resources. Working with teaching faculty to integrate library information into the courses, the librarian is able to deal with a diverse student population, resulting in student success and librarian satisfaction. M. Schumacher

Williams, S. (2010). New tools for online information literacy instruction. Reference Librarian, 51(2), 148-162. doi:10.1080/02763870903579802
By reviewing several recent studies, the author examines the various modes of providing information literacy instruction to students, as well as comparing the efficacy of online versus face-to-face instruction. Course management software, like Blackboard, blogs, podcasts and screencasts, web-based games and sites like “Second Life” all offer librarians ways to reach a tech-savvy generation of users in an “evolving technological world.” M. Schumacher

Xiao, J. (2010). Integrating information literacy into Blackboard: Librarian-faculty collaboration for successful student learning. Library Management, 31(8/9), 654-668. doi:10.1108/01435121011093423
By incorporating components of information literacy instruction into the Blackboard site for the Nursing 110 course at the College of Staten Island, librarians are able to provide multi-modal assistance to the students working on research into the cultural dimensions of nursing. Assessment of the efforts, which combined face-to-face orientation with websites and tutorials within Blackboard and frequent collaboration with the teaching faculty, shows that students not only learned how to find and evaluate resources, but also developed a far better understanding of plagiarism and how to avoid it. M. Schumacher

Yelinek, K., Neyer, L., Bressler, D., Coffta, M., & Magolis, D. (2010). Using LibGuides for an information literacy tutorial. College & Research Libraries News, 71(7), 352-355.
This article describes the creation of a LibGuide to replace a library research tutorial and a one-credit online research skills class at Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania. Material from the class, and from James Madison University’s “Go for the Gold” library tutorial, were adapted with LibGuides’ functionality in mind. The process of creating the guide, lessons learned during it, and the positive outcomes of the project are briefly outlined. R. Shepard

Zdravkovic, N. (2010). Spicing up information literacy tutorials: Interactive class activities that worked. Public Services Quarterly, 6(1), 48-64.
This article presents six examples of interactive teaching activities used in one-shot instruction sessions by librarians at the University of Auckland. A short description of each activity is provided, along with examples of student responses, a description of outcomes, and an explanation of potential challenges to its use in the classroom. The activities are specifically designed to accommodate short attention spans and need for hands-on learning documented in adult learners. A bibliography of sources of other interactive information literacy-oriented activities recommended by the author is also provided. R. Shepard


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