Library Services for Distance Learning: Sixth Bibliography

UNDER CONSTRUCTION ACRL Distance Learning Section

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Chapter 13: Distance Education and ESL Learners

This project was first proposed at the DLS Instruction Committee meeting at the 2010 ALA Annual Conference in Washington, D.C. At the committee’s ALA Midwinter virtual meeting on December 7, 2010, the committee members Mona Anne Niedbala and Andrew Lee volunteered to work on this project, starting with the creation of an annotated bibliography. Andrew Lee (co-chair of the committee then) would be the contact person if anyone else in the committee wanted to join the project.

In the spring of 2011, Mona and Andrew did a preliminary literature search on articles about issues related to English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the distance-learning environment. ERIC, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA), WilsonWeb Education Full Text, and Library/Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text (EBSCOHost) databases were searched, and eight articles were selected to be included in an annotated bibliography. It was decided that more articles would be added as future literature searches were completed. After 2011 ALA summer conference, Mona left the committee.

In the spring of 2012, two more committee members, Carrie Bertling Disclafani and Robert Morrison, joined Andrew to update the preliminary bibliography. ERIC, JSTOR
ASC, Sage Teacher Reference Center, Communication & Mass Media Library, Information Science & Technology, and Linguistics & Language Behavior
databases were searched and 14 additional articles were selected for the bibliography.

Borham-Puyal, Miriam, and Susana Olmos-Migueláñez. “Improving The Use Of Feedback In An Online Teaching-Learning Environment: An Experience Supported By Moodle.” US-China Foreign Language 9.6 (2011): 371-382.
This article reports on a study conducted at the University of Salamanca that analyzed the role of technology in providing feedback in a competency-based teaching-learning process in an online environment.  The literature on the competency-based approach that is transforming the teaching-learning process and impacting learning and assessment stresses formative over summative assessment.  The study was conducted in online English and cultural courses using Moodle.  The goal was to enhance reading comprehension and critical analysis in English studies.  Tools included questionnaires, reading journals, databases, glossaries, written assignments, and wikis that allowed for instructor feedback.  Moodle allowed for immediate (formative) feedback and created space for students to conduct their own self-assessment.  The use of technology in the classroom encouraged dialogue between students and the instructor.  Formative feedback contributed to students developing competencies in reading comprehension and critical analysis.

Bulu, Saniye Tugba, and Zahide Yildirim. “Communication Behaviors and Trust in Collaborative Online Teams.” Journal of Educational Technology & Society 11.1 (2008): 132-147.
This case study investigated group trust and communication behaviors of online teams. Qualitative methods were used to analyze online discussion archives and open-ended questions from a questionnaire. Participants were third-year foreign language education students attending an IT course at the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey, and were competent in English. Questions guiding this study were: what is the distribution of online posts of the groups at different trust levels and what are the collaborative communication behaviors of online groups at different trust levels.  Participants spent fifteen weeks developing a technology supported project for foreign language learners, using the “Learning to Teach with Technology Studios” (LTTS) developed by Indiana University.  Data was collected from a questionnaire and from the discussion forum archives.  The results found that some groups achieved a higher level of trust than others.  The groups also demonstrated different communication behaviors.  Regular communication was a major factor in forming and strengthening trust.  The group exhibiting the lowest level of trust experienced negative leadership.  Social interaction can build trust but it must be continuous. Different learning styles may explain the differences in the social interaction and enthusiasm reported by participants and through the analysis.  Trust is a critical component in online learning groups, as are positive social environments and social interactions.

Campbell, Nittaya. “Bringing ESL Students Out Of Their Shells: Enhancing Participation Through Online Discussion.” Business Communication Quarterly 70.1 (2007): 37-43.
This paper contains the author’s experience using online discussions to effectively engage and to facilitate participation by ESL students.  Experiences in the classroom and in the literature found that East and Southeast Asian students do not participate in classroom discussions. The most significant reason is cultural—challenging authority and debating is part of Western education and foreign to Asian students. The author found that Asian students actively engaged in online discussions. Student comments supported their observations by noting that they were not interrupted online and ESL speakers did not have confidence to debate; the author described these as an “equalizing effect.”  The author provides several tips for designing effective online discussions: small class sizes, use a case study to ensure enough students participate to supply data, and use guidelines and rules (e.g., discussion post limits: 1-150 words). The instructor’s role can be flexible, but a non-participatory role can be helpful as Asian students do not like to challenge the instructor’s authority.

Campbell, Nittaya. “Online Discussion: A New Tool For Classroom Integration?” Communication Journal of New Zealand 5.2 (2004): 3-24.
This article reports on the results of the use of online discussions in three intercultural communication classes to demonstrate the impact of technology on group discussions that integrated Asian students.  Asian students are more culturally reticent than Western students to engage in class discussions and to ask questions.  Collaborative learning is not part of the traditional Asian education that emphasizes lectures where the teacher is a trusted source.  This study was conducted in undergraduate and graduate classes with Chinese, Thai, and Malaysian students.  Students used an electronic discussion board in ClassForum to discuss different assignments.  The instructor and a tutor monitored the board to facilitate student discussions without leading or taking over.  Students also wrote a short reflection paper on their assignments.  Results showed that students benefit from the online discussion environment, where every student could contribute without making mistakes or being criticized.  Time to thoughtfully consider writing in English without the pressure of a face-to-face environment was also cited and contributed to an increase in student discussion posts.  Student interactions were also higher than the traditional classroom which is limited by set times.  The online environment is not encumbered by visual and other expressions that can be culturally different and misinterpreted.  This study showed that using online discussions may be more effective for Asian and international students before they take face-to-face classes.  The author provides a list of helpful guidelines for online discussions based on student comments.

Chen, Rainbow, Susan J. Bennett, and Karl A. Maton. “The Adaptation of Chinese International Students to Online Flexible Learning: Two Case Studies.” Distance Education 29.3 (2008): 307-323.
This article illustrates two Chinese students’ online learning experiences at an Australian university. The study was guided by John W. Berry’s acculturation framework (1980, 2005), which explains different individuals’ intercultural contact, potential conflicts during the cultural interaction, strategies to cope with the acculturative stress, and behavioral changes in cross-cultural adaptation. Specifically, the two students reported the challenges they encountered in an online flexible delivery environment and their coping strategies and patterns of adaptations. The challenges of online learning perceived by the two students included reduced input from the teacher, absence of a teacher-student relationship, absence of learning community, and no enforcement of learning from teachers. Both students felt less satisfied compared with their perceptions of face-to-face learning experiences. They were more critical of student-centered pedagogies and exhibited a stronger preference for the teacher-in-charge approach. The two students’ reflections may help designers of online courses understand international students’ perceptions of and adaptation process to Western-style online learning and make certain changes accordingly.

Chiu, Yi-Ching Jean. “Facilitating Asian Students’ Critical Thinking In Online Discussions.” British Journal of Educational Technology 40.1 (2009): 42-57.
This study explored critical thinking from the perspective of Asian students from a Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC).  Critical thinking in the Western definition and perspective differs from CHC students who learn social harmony, conflict avoidance, and respect for the teachers’ authority.  The CHC context focuses on affective and cultural factors.  The teacher in the CHC model has a moral role with students that can conflict with using critical thinking to voice opposing or contrary views.  Participants in the study were third-year equivalent university students in an intermediate reading course at the Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages.  The study’s purpose was to determine if culturally appropriate online practices are effective through the “shepherd leadership” model (the “shepherd leader” focuses on students’ affective needs).  This study utilized multiple methods but limited findings from the student focus groups.  There were two focus groups conducted.  The first was held after the first synchronous online chat, where participants were asked how the facilitation influenced their participation and discussion frequency.  The second focus group, held at the end of the term, explored students’ “perceived effectiveness of different facilitating skills.”  Results showed that students experienced “cognitive breakthrough” and were more willing to share ideas when the “shepherd leader” provided a high level of affective support.  The absence of negative body language resulted in students perceiving higher affective support.  The shepherding role was also effective in helping students actively participate in critical thinking activities that crossed the CHC cultural barrier and provided an effective pedagogy for bringing these students into “a culture of interactive thinking and dialogue.”

Dekhinet, Rayenne. “Online Enhanced Corrective Feedback For ESL Learners In Higher Education.” Computer Assisted Language Learning 21.5 (2008): 409-425.
This case study investigated the value of online enhanced corrective feedback (OECF) for ESL students.  Dekhinet noted that the literature supports using technology to enhance language learning but few studies reported on the quality of interaction for ESL learners.  This study was designed to examine the quality of online interactions, student perceptions, and their challenges. Participants were recruited from the Language Centre of the University of Dundee, comprising Chinese, Italian, and Indian students.  Tutors were recruited from the University of Dundee, most from Scotland and experienced with technology and online courses.  OECF supports tutoring for students to develop language skills, through employing Vygotsky’s theory where competent learners scaffold weaker learners.  Instant messaging employed strategies from “negotiated meaning”, where students and peers reach understanding through “modified interaction”; tutors ask questions and correct spelling and grammar mistakes through a conversation.  Conversations are tracked and visible to demonstrate progress and to facilitate interaction and learning.  Students’ perceptions and attitudes were reported via a survey at the end of the project.  The results demonstrated that OECF provided a positive experience for students to practice language skills and the text-based medium improved their writing skills. The study was limited by drop outs (“attrition of participants”) and misunderstandings of the project’s goals and time expectations.  The conversation analysis established that students were actively involved in processing the English language through interactions with the tutors.  In the future, studies like this can be improved by incorporating face-to-face social training sessions and stipends for tutors.

Hughes, Hilary. “Actions and Reactions: Exploring International Students’ Use of Online Information Resources.” Australian Academic & Research Libraries 36.4 (2005): 169-179.
This article discusses research into the use of online resources by international students attending an Australian university. It describes the participants’ actions online, their affective and cognitive reactions, what difficulties they encountered, and what types of help they sought. The researcher found that international students generally demonstrated proficiency with ICTs (information and communication technologies), but had limited information literacy skills. They experienced a range of difficulties when using online resources associated with English language limitations, differences in approaches to learning, and unfamiliarity with online scholarly resources. Linguistic difficulties tended to have a greater adverse effect when using online resources for searching and information retrieval, while cultural differences appeared to have a greater impact on student-teacher relationships and resource evaluation. The researcher concludes with a discussion of how the online experience of international students could be enhanced through information literacy lessons and online resource design that celebrate linguistic and cultural diversity.

Lanham, Elicia, and Wanlei Zuou. “Cultural Issues in Online Learning – Is Blended Learning a Possible Solution?” International Journal of Computer Processing of Oriental Languages 16.4 (2003): 275-292.

In this article, the authors argue that students from diverse cultures have varying compatibility with different learning environments.  As institutions of higher education move more course content online, these compatibilities and incompatibilities become more apparent. While we have the technology to provide global education, our efforts must now focus on ensuring that the educational resources and content we create can be used by all students. Blended learning is described as the creation of a flexible online environment that balances new and traditional instruction. The authors conclude that through the blending learning approach we will be able to provide all students, regardless of location and culture, with dynamic learning environments that allow them to personalize content to fit their unique learning styles.

Liu, Xiaojing, Shijuan Liu, L., Seung-hee Lee, and Richard J. Magjuka. “Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions.” Journal of Educational Technology & Society 13.3 (2010): 177-188.
This article describes a case study of international students’ perceptions and experiences of an online MBA program. Cultural differences may influence students’ participation in online education, and the designers of online courses should try to remove potential cultural barriers. Eastern education is often seen as a group-based and teacher-dominated pedagogy with students revealing modest and face-saving personalities in the group work. Western education emphasizes self-development that encourages dialog, interaction and challenges in pedagogy with students as being more assertive, confident, and independent. The study finds that language barriers, communication tool use, plagiarism, time zone differences, and a lack of diverse content may negatively influence international students’ performance. Students particularly expressed the need of more diversified cases in the MBA program (too many U.S.-based cases). The study also found that while students prefer to maintain a continuity of their own culture of learning, they also want to engage in a new culture of learning and thinking, which is seen as a potential factor to obtain more culturally rich learning experiences. To ensure international students’ participation in online learning, the designers of online courses should create varied and culturally inclusive learning environments. Online instructors should be more culturally sensitive, provide scaffolding for international students to reduce cultural and language barriers, and foster flexibility and variability in online courses.

Long, Gary L., Karen Vignare, Raychel P. Rappold, and James R. Mallory. “Access to Communication for Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing and ESL Students in Blended Learning Courses.” International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 8.3 (2007): n. pag. Directory of Open Access Journals. Web. 18 June 2012.
This article examines student perceptions of communication in blended (online and traditional) learning environments and reports on different perceptions found among hearing, deaf (D), hard-of-hearing (HH), and English as a second language (ESL) students. The researchers found that while the hearing and ESL students were positive about the blended experience, the greatest benefit to communication access was observed by students with hearing loss. They explained that in traditional classes, D/HH students are faced with challenges when communicating through a third party (interpreter or captionist) who may not have the content knowledge or signing skills needed to accurately convey lecture content. They found that the addition of discussion boards and other online communication tools provided platforms for D/HH students to interact directly with their hearing instructors and peers. The D/HH students reported that both the quality and quantity of their interactions with instructors and fellow-students was greatly improved by the inclusion of online components.

Moore, Sarah Catherine K. “Uses of Technology in the Instruction of Adult English Language Learners.” CAELA Network. Center for Applied Linguistics, Feb. 2009. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.
This brief describes examples of using technology in order to facilitate the acquisition of English for adult English language learners. Some of the benefits of using technology in the instruction of adult English language learners are the flexibility to extend learning beyond formal programs, dynamic opportunities for interaction between teachers and students, the reduction of the digital divide, and the facilitation of progress toward proficiency in English. Three models of integrating technology are described: onsite, blended, and online. Onsite technologies that can be used for working with adult English language learners include computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computer-assisted language learning (CALL), and software programs designed for language learning. Products include The New Oxford Picture Dictionary CD-ROM, Rosetta Stone (K-12, adult education, postsecondary levels), and the English Language Learning and Instruction System (ELLIS, a learning package to support adults learning English in England). Technology that is used in a blended learning environment could be CAI, CALL, computer-mediated communication (CMC), and web-based learning. Three models of web-based learning are offered: project-based web learning, webquests, and web-based games (see  Technology used in online learning includes USA Learns (, and Learner Web ( Recommendations for using technology to support instruction in adult education programs and considerations for future research are provided.

Murugaiah, Puvaneswary, and Siew Ming Thang. “Development of Interactive and Reflective Learning among Malaysian Online Distant Learners: An ESL Instructor’s Experience.” International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 11.3 (2010): 21-41.
The article describes two ESL instructors’ attempt to foster interactive and reflective learning among distance learners at a public university in Malaysia. The authors state that online learning for ESL students must incorporate social interaction, collaboration, and reflection. Based on Salmon’s model (E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, 2004), the authors provide an example of organizing an online writing activity based on five stages: access and motivation, online socialization, information exchange, knowledge construction, and development.  The instructor plays pedagogical, social, managerial, and technical roles.  Findings indicated challenges faced by the instructors and learners, but the social interactions and reflections helped students. In order to overcome the challenges, the authors recommend ensuring instructor guidance, enforcing compulsory participation, addressing technical problems quickly, starting strategic training prior to the beginning of the task, and implementing team teaching with each instructor taking on certain roles.

Roessingh, Hetty, and Carla Johnson. “Online Teaching and Learning in TESL Professional Development.” Quarterly Review of Distance Education 6.2 (2005): 107-115.
This article discusses the five phases of the transition from a face-to-face to an online teaching and learning environment for the MEd TESL, a course-based master’s degree in Teaching English as a Second Language offered at the University of Calgary. The five steps include the exploratory phase, the course design of EDER – designing ESL curricula, the shift to preparing for distance delivery, becoming an online teacher, and monitoring and supporting students’ activities. The author emphasizes the role of the discussion board to connect geographically-disconnected learners through reflection and inquiry. Among the lessons learned are the fact that online students expect learning to be efficient, well-managed, organized, and convenient; and curriculum design is an integrative endeavor that assumes the ability to draw on foundational learning from materials, methods, and second language learning theory. Based on this experience, two more online courses were developed, ESL Materials Development and Language Teaching Methods.

South, Joseph B., Bruce Gabbitas, and Paul F. Merrill. “Designing Video Narratives to Contextualize Content for ESL Learners: A Design Process Case Study.” Interactive Learning Environments 16.3 (2008): 231-243.
This article introduces a video-based language-learning model that uses dramatic narratives to help English-as-the-second-language (ESL) learners. The videos were produced by the Brigham Young University Technology Assisted Language Learning Group. The authors of the article first emphasize the importance of context in language learning and criticize the lack of context that appears in a variety of disciplines. Then they compare non-narrative and narrative language models and point out the limitations of short, non-narrative videos used in current language education. To overcome these limitations, the authors experiment with producing dramatic narratives in two videos, which contain rich context, greater depth in the content, high engagement of learners, and authentic language and culture. The response from the target audience is overwhelmingly positive. The authors also provide guidelines for producing such videos and using them in pedagogical settings or incorporating them into language training software. This article not only has positive implications in ESL education but also in every discipline that suffers from lack of context.

Tan, Fujuan. “Tri-fold Transformation: An International Adult Student’s Reflections on Online Learning.” Adult Learning 20.3/4 (2009): 38-40.
The article describes the changes that an ESL graduate student from China, studying in the USA, experienced when taking the first online learning course. The multi-fold transformation affected three areas: language, culture, and technology. In regard to the language transformation, the author considers that online learning favored the basic language skills of reading and writing. The online learning environment lacked being able to listen and speak which caused lack of confidence and uneasiness. The author states that international students commonly experience culture shock when coming to study in the United States. The asynchronous nature of the online learning environment does not provide cultural understanding or sharing, reduces the sense of community, and prevents fostering personal relationships. Conversely, the face-to-face model offers immediate and interactive discussions which allows questions and provides immediate feedback. In regard to technology, the author describes her struggle with different functions and operations of the online format and with submitting assignments. Taking other online courses and practice helped the problems dissipate over time. To improve the online learning experience for international students, instructors and instructional designers should prepare students to work with the technology, provide ongoing support, be aware of cultural diversity, increase the use of audio and video features, provide clear and detailed expectations for course assignments, use the online journal, and provide an alternate means of communication (such as face-to-face meetings).

Tan, Fujuan, Lee Nabb, Steven Aagard, and Kim Kioh. “International ESL Graduate Student Perceptions of Online Learning in the Context of Second Language Acquisition and Culturally Responsive Facilitation.” Adult Learning 21.1/2 (2010): 9-14.
Little research exists regarding how cultural differences and student perceptions affect online learning, especially for ESL students. This study discusses ESL graduate student perspectives concerning the way online learning affects the development of English language skills. Seven international ESL graduate students were asked eight open-ended questions about likes and dislikes in regard to the online learning experiences; the effect of online learning on English language acquisition; the effect of online learning on learning styles, individual attitude, motivation, and anxiety toward learning; and about how cultural differences affect online learning in comparison to face-to-face experiences. Findings include: language and cultural differences presented challenges in online learning situations; online learning promotes the use of standardized English, which has a positive effect on the development of vocabulary, writing, and reading skills; learning how to use the technology and managing time were difficult; and online learning does not promote cultural understanding as well as the face-to-face model does. The authors offer suggestions to make online learning experiences more effective for non-native ESL students. Among these are direction for learning technology and technological procedures provided by instructors; use of standardized English; and fostering communication, community building, and cultural understanding.

Wang, Chun-Min, and Thomas C. Reeves. “Synchronous Online Learning Experiences: The Perspectives of International Students from Taiwan.” Education Media International 44.4 (2007): 339-356.
The article discusses how Taiwanese students adjust to the synchronous online environment in the U.S. and found that the students prefer face-to-face courses rather than online courses. Students found the synchronous online course “good enough,” but they also met with some challenges. For example, the participants of online courses could be distracted easily by emails, online chatting, and internet surfing; online communication lacks “facial expression” which is important for people to better understand one another; and the language barrier makes it difficult for international students to concentrate on the teacher’s lecture, read messages, and take notes simultaneously in an online class. Cultural aspects of online learning and teaching are addressed as well. International students could not understand some examples or conversations by American students when the content was based on the background knowledge of American culture and education. Taiwanese education is more focused on exams requiring reading and writing skills, which is contrasted with American education that emphasizes students’ way of thinking and expression of their thoughts. The study also suggests the instructional design of an online course should interact with cultural issues instead of technological aspects only, such as setting up some face-to-face meetings, identifying techniques to help international students get involved in more group activities of the online classroom, and researching how to balance online and face-to-face components in online courses.

Yeh, Shiou-Wen, and Jia-Jiunn Lo, “Using Online Annotations to Support Error Correction and Corrective Feedback.” Computers & Education 52.4 (2009): 882-892.
For instructors of second language (L2) writing courses, giving corrective feedback to students is a challenging task, especially when L2 students do not understand or process the feedback. Motivated by the increasing need for effective writing feedback in online composition classes, the authors of this paper introduce a computer-mediated corrective feedback system called “online annotation technology,” based on an experiment on 50 freshmen in a university in northern Taiwan. This annotation system includes: 1) highlighting key words, which helps draw the readers’ attention; 2) structuring a system that generates a list of related annotations; and 3) managing annotations by editing their content. This computer-based corrective system includes such features as Document Maker, Annotation Editor (error correction marking), Composer (displaying annotation marks based on user query), Error Analyzer, Document Viewer, and Analyzed Result Viewer, all of which aim to help students detect and recognize errors in their writings and provide them with effective error-correction prompts. The results of the experiment revealed that students who used this online annotation system effectively identified more errors than the control group did. This paper also provides limitations of this online system and future research directions.

Yildiz, Swbwn, and Barbara A. Bichelmeyer. “Exploring Electronic Forum Participation and Interaction by EFL Speakers in Two Web-based Graduate-level Courses.” Distance Education 24.2 (2003): 175-193.
This article describes the online forum participation of international graduate students in two Web-based graduate courses with the focus on how linguistic and cultural differences influence their classroom participation. Data was collected from surveys, interactive entries of students and instructors in the course forum, face-to-face and email interviews, and the researchers’ observations and field notes. The data was then analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that linguistic barriers such as reading comprehension and writing difficulties prevent international students from actively participating in online forums. Cultural differences were revealed in the students’ discomfort with learner-oriented discussions as opposed to teacher-delivered course lectures. These students tended to avoid public questioning or challenging to show their disagreement, which decreased their participation. Despite these difficulties, however, the results also show the unique characteristics of Web-based forum discussion provide students with a more equal opportunity to vocalize.

Zhao, Shuo,  and Xue-ai Zhao. “Talents Oriented Strategy of Online Learning in Universities.” Canadian Social Science 6.1 (2010): 33-39.
In this article, the authors emphasize the importance of interactive learning in online English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes. The success of an online class lies in learners’ self-perception as part of a learning community and interactive learning is one of the best ways to engage students. Despite a lack of face-to-face interaction in online education, instructors should continue to design activities to support learning objectives, such as tests and quizzes, readings and case studies, online discussions, and writings. The authors list seven strategies that could encourage students to actively participate in online learning: 1) make the class interactive, e.g., show students how knowledge is interrelated and associated; 2) engage and motivate, e.g., incorporate the discussion of interesting and related social events or problem-solving activities; 3) put things in context, using knowledge and skills from daily living; 4) maintain diversity of different learning modes and channels; 5) foster collaborative skills such as engaging students in a coordinated effort to solve a problem; 6) reduce cognitive load by chunking information into smaller pieces to prevent information “overload;” and 7) provide adequate scaffolding by teaching students problem-solving strategies to gain independence in learning and critical thinking. To achieve these goals, the facilitators, learners, and the content of an online class play equally important roles. These strategies are applicable to all other types of online learning as well as online EFL classes.



Chapter 12: Evaluating Web-Based Library Instruction

Anderson, R. P., & Wilson, S. P. (2009). Quantifying the effectiveness of interactive tutorials in medical library instruction. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 28(1), 10–21. doi: 10.1080/02763860802615815

Anderson and Wilson aim to fill a gap in research by not only studying whether active versus passive learning tutorials have an effect on student learning but also whether users prefer active versus passive tutorials. The study only tested three learning outcomes, and for two of the three, there was no statistical difference between the performances of students taking the active versus passive tutorials; however, students overwhelmingly voiced the opinion that they prefer active-learning tutorials.

Bobish, G. (2011). Participation and pedagogy: Connecting the social web to ACRL learning outcomes. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(1), 54–63. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.10.007
After a brief explanation of the link between constructivism and information literacy, Bobish relates Web. 2.0 tools with constructivism and touches on how these tools and this approach can enrich the teaching and learning of information literacy skills. He goes on to list each of ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education along with each standard’s performance indicators and outcomes. Each outcome is matched with one or more of five Web 2.0 tools (blogs, media sharing, social bookmarking, social networking, and wikis) along with suggestions for incorporating the suggested tools into lessons.

Castonguay, R. (2008). Assessing library instruction through web usability and vocabulary studies. Journal of Web Librarianship 2, 429–455. doi: 10.1080/19322900802190753
Castonguay reports on a series of Web usability studies of a community college library’s web presence. By adopting techniques for task design from the field of human-computer interaction/usability studies, the author establishes correlations between the level of students’ previous library instruction and their performance on usability tasks. The study also demonstrates a positive correlation between library instruction and successful completion of information retrieval tasks. It provides ideas for assessment project design in which usability tasks are used to understand relationships between research performance and varied approaches to library instruction.

Friehs, C. G., & Craig, C. L. (2008). Assessing the effectiveness of online library instruction with finance students. Journal of Web Librarianship 2(4), 493–509. doi: 10.1080/19322900802484438
The authors use survey methods to answer questions about whether university finance students find Camtasia-produced tutorials for online databases useful. This straight-forward study establishes that such tutorials are a valuable and useful form of library instruction. Correlations are found between the goals of the students and their perceived relevance of the resources. The article communicates a clear research design rooted in widely accepted survey methods. This article is a model for designing surveys that implement Likert scales and correlate results to biographical data.

Germek, G. (2012). Empowered Library eLearning: Capturing assessment and reporting with ease, efficiency, and effectiveness. Reference Services Review, 40(1), 90–102.
Web-based library instruction is delivered increasingly through online tutorials. In many cases it is difficult to assess their effectiveness unless they are housed in a learning management system that offers instant scoring and electronic data archiving. Germek describes how to create and evaluate online tutorials through Adobe Captivate and Connect. Following his steps, Adobe becomes a library eLearning platform that is evaluated and updated based on usage reporting. This article is a valuable guide on how to build and assess web-based instruction through Adobe tutorials.

Hensley, M. K., & Miller, R. E. (2010). Listening from a distance: A survey of University of Illinois distance learners and its implications for meaningful instruction. Journal of Library Administration, 50 (5–6), 670–683. doi: 10.1080/01930826.2010.488946
In a 2009 survey at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, distance learners were asked about their perceptions and use of the library. Hensley and Miller describe how the survey was designed and written in order to gain meaningful student feedback. Their survey results and how they were used to evaluate library instruction are explained. This article gives helpful guidelines for soliciting meaningful evaluations from students. Librarians teaching online students will also benefit from the survey results that are a current snapshot of distance learners’ impressions of the library.

Hillyer, N., Maring, M., & Richards, D. (2008). Assessment in small bytes: Creating an online instrument to measure information literacy skills. In T. P. Mackey, & T. E. Jacobson (Eds.), Using technology to teach information literacy (pp. 165–192). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
The University of Nebraska–Omaha library, in collaboration with the university’s English department, designed an online assessment instrument delivered through Blackboard to measure students’ mastery of information literacy skills before and after face-to-face library instruction delivered to first-year English classes. Students were asked to complete the post-instruction questionnaire within 2 weeks of the last library instruction session. The questions in the pre- and post-instruction questionnaires were identical and were mapped to standards 1,2, 3, and 5 of ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. The post-instruction questionnaire scores were higher than pre-instruction questionnaires. The authors also identified that questions mapped to concepts that were taught with active learning exercises showed the largest increase in correct answers. The study’s methodology and challenges are well explained, but those looking for ways to assess online learning instead of face-to-face learning may find only limited parts of the study helpful.

Hufford, J. R. & Paskel, A. K. (2010). Pre-and Postassessment surveys for the distance section of LIBR 1100, Introduction to Library Research. Journal of Library Administration, 50, 693–711. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488956
In the fall of 2009, librarians at Texas Tech University Libraries decide to undertake pre- and post-assessment surveys of their online section of LIBR 1100 not only to determine objectively if their students were indeed learning what was taught, but also to share their assessment experience in an area that is lacking in the professional literature. Findings from their assessment of the first cohort in 2009 were strongly positive, indicating that their online students improved their initial assessment scores significantly. Lessons learned include the importance of meeting learning outcomes through assessment and how assessing students helps instructors structure courses so that learning can be continually improved each time the course is taught.

Kontos, F., & Henkel, H. (2008). Live instruction for distance students: Development of synchronous online workshops. Public Services Quarterly 4(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1080/15228950802135657
This case study describes the use of Blackboard Wimba to produce synchronous library instructional sessions. The authors report on several considerations which other librarians may find relevant when working to replicate similar designs. Among these considerations is the expectation of low student attendance rates, although this may be tempered by increased participation by faculty. This study provides evidence that there is a market, particularly among younger students, for synchronous online approaches to instruction.

Lavoie, D., Rosman, A., & Sharma, S. (2011). Information literacy by design: Recalibrating graduate professional asynchronous online programs. In T. P. Mackey, & T. E. Jacobson (Eds.), Teaching information literacy online (pp. 133–158). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
At the University of Connecticut, librarians turned the creation of an online master of science in accounting degree into an opportunity to fully integrate information literacy into the program’s curriculum. A team consisting of an instructional designer, librarian, professor, and a media specialist approached this challenge using a constructivist model of learning focused on student mastery of the process rather than outcomes. The team named their approach RELM (Resource-Enriched Learning Model). RELM focuses more on faculty development and less on the course; the instructional designer acts almost as a mentor helping faculty to learn and strengthen their own instructional design skills. The University of Connecticut’s collaborative approach and process allows information literacy to be integrated throughout the curriculum. Skills can be scaffolded not only over several assignments in a course but also throughout the entire program’s curriculum. This case study is unique in its focus on the special information literacy needs of graduate students and is a good description of an ideal structure for integrating course design and information literacy.

McClure, R. & Cooke, R. (2011). The search for the Skunk Ape: Studying the impact of an online information literacy tutorial on student writing. Journal of Information Literacy, 5(2), 26–45.
McClure and Cooke investigate the impact of an online information literacy tutorial on English Composition students’ ability to select and evaluate sources, as well as use them in essays. Findings indicate that although students improved in their ability to locate and use appropriate sources, they still lacked the ability to correctly use in-text citations. There were also discrepancies between students’ in-text citations and their bibliographies. McClure and Cooke conclude that librarians need to work together with English Composition faculty to create a learning module for incorporating the use of in-text citations in the writing process, underscoring the importance of close collaborations between faculty and librarians when tailoring tutorials for a specific course or specific content in a course.

Mestre, L. S. (2010). Matching up learning styles with learning objects: What’s effective? Journal of Library Administration, 50, 808–829. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488975
Mestre’s study examines whether learning objects are designed to meet the varied learning styles of culturally diverse student users. Mestre asserts that although most librarians do not take student preferences into account, most students prefer learning objects with multiple modalities, including images, sound, and interactive elements. Although limitations of the study include a small student sample and lack of diverse ethnic representation, Mastre’s finding does underscore the importance of addressing learning object design from a pedagogical and user standpoint and stresses that the success of student engagement and learning through these objects are likely dependent on these factors.

Mestre, L. S., Baures, L., Niedbala, M., Bishop, C., Cantrell, S., Perez, A., & Silfen, K. (2011). Learning objects as tools for teaching information literacy online: A survey of librarian usage. College & Research Libraries, 72(3), 236–252. doi: 10.5860/crl-130rl
This article is based on a survey conducted in 2008 by the Online Learning Research Committee of the ACRL Education and Behavioral Sciences Section (EBBS) which was born out of discussion sessions. The survey aimed to determine what online teaching applications librarians are using and how they are designing learning objects embedded in course management systems. Pedagogical considerations, librarian expertise and training, and faculty/librarian relationships are discussed. The study determined that there are definite challenges relating to all three factors mentioned, resulting in the creation of the Librarian’s Toolkit for Online Course Development to support librarians faced with these challenges.

Schimming, L. M. (2008). Measuring medical student preference: A comparison of classroom versus online instruction for teaching PubMed. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA 96(3), 217–222. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.96.3.007
The article describes a training program and follow-up test for a large group of medical students. The author reports on student participation and response to an online PubMed tutorial and skills assessment created by university librarians. The study’s findings indicate that students participating in a self-guided, online tutorial passed the PubMed skills assessment at the same high rate as students who attended training in person. Results also suggest that students may prefer the flexibility and control of self-guided online training. Most important, this article provides evidence of the positive attributes of asynchronous library instruction and a method of assessing similar programs.

Searing, S. (2012). In it for the long haul: Lessons from a decade of assessment. In T. Peters & J. Rundels (Eds.), The Fifteenth Distance Library Services Conference Proceedings (pp. 291–313). Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University.
Reviewing ten years of distance education student evaluations, Searing suggests assessment criteria for library orientation and instruction. Her work exemplifies how cyclical assessment processes can improve library instruction. In addition to her example, she provides helpful classifications for evaluating library instruction.

Smith, S. S. (2010). Evaluation, testing, and assessment. In Web-based instruction: A guide for libraries (3rd ed. ed., pp. 177–186). Chicago: American Library Association.
Smith gives a succinct overview of evaluation and testing methods for assessing the effectiveness of software and instructional design processes as well as the overall effectiveness of completed projects. She describes categories of evaluation (formative and summative) and evaluation methods (user, usability, and inquiry). Several methods are described for each of evaluation method, allowing readers to select the best assessment for their project. She concludes by touching on assessing content mastery. This chapter is a good starting point for those with little knowledge of assessment and evaluation methods. The book’s Appendix has an extensive list of resources to guide readers to additional, in-depth information.

Stagg, A. & Kimmins, L. (2012). Research skills development through collaborative virtual learning environments. Reference Services Review, 40(1), 61–74.
Stagg and Kimmins evaluated the success and challenges of a virtual learning environment (VLE) created in collaboration between the Library, Learning and Teaching Support and the Faculty of Business and Law at the University of Southern Queensland. The VLE called My Business Study and Research was created in a course management system and consisted of screencasts aimed at distance students to support their deeper learning or understanding of the research process or a specific content. Student feedback indicates that the VLE and screencasts were used heavily at “point of need” and were valued by students. Although the study was unable to determine if deeper learning does indeed take place in the VLE, similar online learning spaces would be the ideal place to provide consistent learning support to students throughout their academic careers.

Washburn, A. (2009). Finding the library in Blackboard: An assessment of library integration. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 301–316.
Lee Library at Brigham Young University used survey methods to answer questions about whether university students found the library’s efforts to infuse Blackboard with a section devoted to library research useful. This survey study established that Course Research Pages, when integrated into course management systems, can help students, but there are ongoing challenges to implementation. Over time difficulties related to maintaining sustained awareness of these resources can appear, and much depends on positive collaborations between librarians and faculty. This article is most relevant to libraries that are trying to integrate library resources into a course management system and who are exploring the processes and challenges of marketing and sustaining ongoing awareness of these services to university communities.

Weschke, B., & Canipe, S. (2010). The faculty evaluation process: The first step in fostering professional development in an online university. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7(1), 45–58.
Weschke and Canipe outline an extensive faculty evaluation program in a distance learning environment. They describe a culture of improvement that is created by compiling student course evaluations, faculty self-assessments, checklists of activity, and adherence to rubrics. This article will be helpful for those who teach a library course and are interested in developing a thorough evaluation program.



Angelique Jenks-Brown (Co-Chair, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapters 1 & 2
Robert M. Miller (Co-Chair, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapters 1 & 2
Kate E. Adams (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012) Editor, Chapter 8
Dr. Maria E. Brahme (Member, July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014) Editor, Chapter 8
Hui – Fen Chang (Member, July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014) Editor, Chapter 11
Mrs. Natalie Clewell (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapter 9
Paul Burton Drake (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapter 6
Mary E. Edwards (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapter 7
Ms. Elaine Fabbro (Member, July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014) Editor, Chapter 9
Rosalind Fielder (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapter 5
Chelsea Hanrahan (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapter 3
Lizah Ismail (Member, July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012) Editor, Chapter 10
Cynthia H. Krolikowski (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapters 3 & 7
Danielle Skaggs (Member, July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013) Editor, Chapter 4
Mrs. Marisa Walstrum (Member, July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012) Editor, Chapter 11


Emily Blankenship, East Carolina University
Cheryl Blevens, Indiana State University
Maria Brahme, Pepperdine University
Toni Carter, Auburn University
Ryan Cassidy, Texas Tech University
Linda Cheresnowski, Clarion University of Pennsylvania
Sarah Clark, Rogers State University
Tony Garrett, Troy University
Cherian George, U C College, Aluva
Kelly Giles, James Madison University
Marianne Giltrud, Catholic University of America
Carrie Girton, Penn State University
Harvey Gover, Washington State University, Tri-Cities
Deana Greenfield, National Louis University
Chelsea Hanrahan, New England College
Laurel Haycock, University of Minnesota
Ingrid Hayes
Lisa Hullett, Wallace State Community College
Jeffrey Hutson, University of Baltimore
Jane Hutton, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Lizah Ismail, Limestone College
Lila Jefferson, University of Louisiana at Monroe
Peter Johnson, Western Carolina University
Andrea Kepsel, Michigan State University
Jule L. Kind, Indiana Wesleyan University
Annie Knight, Chapman University
Elizabeth J. Leonard, Berkeley College
Nancy Mactague, Aurora University
Lauren Marcus, State University of New York at New Paltz
Robert Miller, University of Maryland University College
Deirdre Moench, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Martella Nelson
Lauren Poelvoorde, Whittier College
Michelle Powers, Career Education Corporation
Carolyn Schubert, James Madison University
Mark Schumacher, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Ryan Shepard, University of Maryland University College
Danielle Skaggs, West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Brenda Smith, Thompson Rivers University
Matthew Sylvain, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Melanie Thomas, Mississippi State University
Cynthia Thomes, University of Maryland University College
Rebecca Ulrey, Baker College
Lisa Williams, University of North Carolina Wilmington
Janice A. Wilson, Eastern Connecticut State University
Daniel Windham, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Julienne Wood, Louisiana State University at Shreveport

Chapter 1: Bibliographies, Literature Reviews, Resource Lists, & Web Sites


Chapter 2: General Works (Monographs, Proceedings and Special Issues; Articles, Papers and Documents; News Items

Alman, S. W., Tomer, C., & Lincoln, M. L. (2012). Designing online learning: A primer for librarians. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
This slim, practical book provides foundational knowledge that librarians need to teach in an online environment. The editors share their findings from struggling and succeeding in the early years of online learning (OL) when there was no instruction manual. The editors and contributing authors also recognize that face to face instructional techniques do not work online.  The first chapter is a summary of four instructional design models and an example how the ADDIE model was applied in the creation of an online synchronous training session on finding library resources.  Chapter Two identifies the faculty development needs: the ins and outs of the learning management system (LMS), online facilitation skills, and instructional design practices such as developing learning objectives, designing activities, and applying media rich content.  The third chapter describes much of the learning technology involved with online programs, provides a comparison of similar features existing among various LMS’s and gives advice on how to make decisions on technology and standards.  Chapter Four is an overview of assessment in the OL environment with discussions of the design process, dimensions of assessment, academic integrity considerations, and examples of traditional and authentic assessment methods. The fifth chapter provides a brief history of distance education and OL, with a literature review and an annotated bibliography.  This chapter also has a discussion on the best practices in embedded librarianship including collaboration, communication, content, academic honesty, copyright, and accessibility.  The final chapter is designed for K-12 librarians, but academic librarians would also benefit from learning about the planning, implementing, and disseminating of a replicable, hybrid information literacy course for high school students. H. Dalal

Ally, M., & Needham, G. (Eds.). (2010). M-libraries 2: A virtual library in everyone’s pocket. Second International M-Libraries Conference, 2009, Vancouver, British Columbia. London, United Kingdom: Facet.
If you are considering implementing mobile technology in your library, then the case studies included in this book merit reading. The book is divided into five sections. The first section shares examples of mobile developments around the world, including case studies from Africa, India, the South Pacific, Spain, and Texas. The second section focuses more on technology, with six papers describing implementation of standards, such as QR codes and mobile device automatic detectors. The third section discusses actual applications of mobile devices in the library. Most of these applications show the cautious adaptations of technologies such as podcasts, mobile language training, roaming reference services, and health-related information. Section four describes efforts to use mobile technology for distance learning. The final section of the book shares contributions to the evidence base for mobile libraries. These contributions include a survey of users, studies of SMS reference, and models for mobile services. E. Blankenship

Blevens, C. L. (2013). Technical services report: Report of the LITA Distance Learning Interest Group meeting. American Library Association Midwinter Meeting, Seattle, January 2013. Technical Services Quarterly, 30(3), 327-330. doi:10.1080/07317131.2013.787866

Butler, B. (2012). Massive Open Online Courses: Legal and policy issues for research libraries.  Retrieved Nov 6, 2012, from
This article provides a much-needed discussion of copyright, fair use, and access requirements for research libraries participating in MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). Written for the layman librarian, not for the copyright or access expert, the article breaks down how copyright works and what accessibility is expected for traditional teaching situations and compares it to the requirements and expectations for MOOCs. The first three sections (“Introduction,” “What is a MOOC?,” “How are research libraries involved in supporting MOOC courses?”) present basic information on the terms being used and the roles that libraries are taking. The most informative section is section four, “Legal issues raised for research libraries.” This section is 2/3 of the entire article and outlines concerns for libraries ranging from copyright to access. Since MOOCs are often both for-profit and open to anyone with access, exceptions made in traditional college settings may not apply. And accessibility – which is necessary in traditional classrooms – is a foggy issue. The article closes with suggestions for libraries: encourage open-access, remember you have fair use rights, and build accessibility into all created course content. Even if the library is not directly involved in an institution’s decision to provide or support MOOCs, often librarians are seen as the experts on these topics. This article gives the clearest and most concise treatment of this topic that this reviewer has yet seen. K. Griffiths

Cannady, R., Fagerheim, B., Williams, B., & Steiner, H. (2013). Diving into distance learning librarianship: Tips and advice for new and seasoned professionals. College & Research Libraries News, 74(5), 254-261.

Dale, P., Beard, J., & Holland, M. (Eds.). (2011). University libraries and digital learning environments. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Throughout this book, the contributing authors reflect on how academic libraries could continue as a central factor in digital learning environments. The overarching argument is that technology offers challenges and at the same time opens up fascinating opportunities for libraries. Themes such as the library as a space, education for librarianship, continuing education of professionals, relevance of social media, status of e-resources and repositories, virtual reference services, information literacy, case studies of libraries, and performance measurement are discussed along with a vision for the future. The book is a valuable source for professionals to understand current developments and to plan accordingly for taking up active roles. C. George

Fulkerson, D. M. (2012). Remote access technologies for library collections: Tools for library users and managers. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
In this timely work for any librarian engaged in distance library services, Fulkerson examines the technologies that are essential for providing access to remote users, connecting them to physical as well as digital library resources in a readily-available and reliable manner.  She describes how the growth of online distance education programs in higher education is integral to these remote access technologies and the ways in which academic librarianship has adapted and must continue to adapt to the needs of distant users.  The author addresses important considerations such as assessing the needs of remote users, planning and implementing collection development for digital resources, maintaining copyright compliance in the online environment, and integrating social networking and mobile computing into operations for providing library resources at a distance.  Fulkerson concludes by reflecting on the evolvement of these concerns and the possible long-term impact of online learning, remote access technologies, and digital resources on the future of academic libraries and library services. M. Hinnen

Goldberg, E. J., & LaMagna, M. (2012). “Open educational resources in higher education.” College & Research Libraries News, 73(6), 334-337.
Conceived as primarily a guide through the numerous and diverse open educational resources that are currently available, this article initially gives a brief nod to the beginnings of the OER movement in the 1990s. For additional background on the subject, the authors refer to the 2007 meeting organized by the Open Society Institute and the Shuttleworth Foundation, which culminated in the Cape Town Open Education Declaration, formally recognizing the need for open access to educational resources. The remainder of the article is a list of selected online resources, focusing on college and university level content that may not be included on that educational institution’s website.  Specifically mentioned are full-package courses, which provide a variety of material for educators, students, and others who are interested in participating in the learning experience. Additional open educational resources are divided into video lectures, educational repositories, online textbooks, and news and information sites. K Smith

Grabowsky, A. (2013). Information and interaction needs of distance students: Are academic libraries meeting the challenge? Georgia Library Quarterly, 50(2), 12-18. Retrieved from

Hyams, E. (2013). LIS by distance learning. CILIP Update, 12(2), 26-29.

Mackey, T. P., & Jacobson, T. E. (Eds.). (2011). Teaching information literacy online. London, United Kingdom: Facet.
Mackey and Jacobson have provided eight comprehensive original designs for best practices and implementation of teaching information literacy online through “Blended Hybrid” and “Open Online” learning programs. Chapters include collaboration between faculty and librarians, one-shot sessions, methodologies, and assessment and appendices for survey tools. It shows integrated strategies for information literacy in both undergraduate and graduate programs. L. Cheresnowski

Moore, M. G. (2013). Handbook of distance education (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Neidorf, R. (2012). Teach beyond your reach: An instructor’s guide to developing and running successful distance learning classes, workshops, training sessions, and more (2nd ed.). Medford, New Jersey: Information Today.
Neidorf’s book is a thorough introductory primer for the distance instructor who is just starting out or would like to improve their online teaching technique. This text not only provides information on the typical distance learner and their challenges, but also offers advice on instructional design, strategies and specific tools to foster learning communities and authentic learning opportunities online. C. Hanrahan

Parkes, D., & Walton, G. (Eds.). (2010). Web 2.0 and libraries: Impacts, technologies and trends. Chandos Information Professional Series. Oxford, United Kingdom: Chandos.
A quick and easy read for the busy professional, this edited collection contains chapters concerning the rise of Web 2.0 and how it has influenced work and education. It offers tactics on harnessing this technology to respond to library users’ changing needs. Most of the authors hail from Staffordshire University and represent diverse professions and expertise. With a wide-range of topics, examples should prove helpful: descriptions of 21st-century learners and teaching strategies; e-books and e-book readers; the changing library (e-buildings); online social network learning; e-learning models for staff development; techniques for integrating Web 2.0 into libraries, including advice on risk assessment and risk management; emerging technologies that affect libraries, such as Web 3.0, mobile learning, RFID, and sensor networks; how Web 2.0 has created social changes and what this means for libraries. T. Carter

Sigal, A. (2013). Advancing library education : technological innovation and instructional design. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Solomon, L. (2011). Doing social media so it matters: A librarian’s guide. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
This slim, easy-to read book is a succinct and practical guide for librarians wishing to learn about the applicability of social media to their institutions, and how to go about it. Equally well suited for academic and public libraries, the book makes a compelling case for the importance of libraries’ engagement in social media.  Solomon provides necessary tools, ranging from how to convince your library director about the importance of involvement, to examples of how to tweet, as well as how not to, and how to assess involvement success. M. Brahme

Chapter 3: Role of Libraries

Abdelrahman, O. (2012). A basic hybrid library support model to distance learners in Sudan. Journal of Librarianship & Information Science, 44(1), 19-26.
This paper attempts to investigate the current situation of library support offered to distance learners in four Sudanese universities and proposes a model of hybrid library support adapted from existing models of library services to distance learners and customized to suit the distance education environment in Sudan. The findings of this study show that distance learners in Sudan have very little access, if any, to appropriate library resources and services. A survey of the websites of four universities reveals that two of these universities provide access to electronic and digital resources through their libraries’ homepages. These resources are mainly composed of links to the library’s OPAC, theses abstracts, and links to free international journals. These online web-based materials are not freely accessed by distance learners; their use is limited to regular students with user name and password restrictions. The last two universities do not provide such access to online web-based materials. The paper suggests distance learning administrations, together with faculty members and librarians, should collaborate and take advantage of the available opportunities provided by advances in digital libraries to provide distance learners with adequate resources to meet their information needs. E. Blankenship

Adams, K. E., & Cassner, M. (2010). Library services for Great Plains IDEA consortial students. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 414-424. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488584
The authors studied distance library services and resources available to students enrolled in consortial graduate programs and certificates through Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (IDEA). IDEA is an interinstitutional alliance of universities with human sciences colleges in eleven states that share graduate courses in order to deliver fully-online programs and certificates. A survey measuring how library services are provided to distance learners was developed and sent to distance librarians at member institutions. J. Wilson

Alewine, M. C. (2012). Listen to what they have to say! Assessing distance learners’ satisfaction with library services using a transactional survey. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 136-146.
This paper examines how the library at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of library services to its distance learners.  As it saw student enrollment at the university nearly double over a seven year period, the Mary Livermore Library administration noticed an increase in off-campus and online enrollments.  The administration strongly felt a need to ensure the library services offered to off-campus and online students were similar to the amount and quality of those given to on-campus students.  In addition to creating an Outreach/Distance Education Librarian position, the library used survey instruments to gather feedback from the students regarding the effectiveness of the services they received.  Initial surveys that were launched either did not create enough responses due to their format or delivery or did not give the targeted responses needed to improve existing services or create new ones.  After further analysis, the library’s distance education personnel narrowed down the survey to a simple 5 question instrument emailed directly to students who had interactions with library personnel and identified themselves as distance learners. The survey focused on the effectiveness of reference services they received from the library. With a 21.7% response rate, the majority of responses were favorable. Those students who gave a negative response left comments as to why they were not satisfied, which helped provide specific information on reasons for their dissatisfaction with library services.  The survey not only provided useful information to library personnel but also provided an avenue for students to provide their feedback on library services. The survey as a feedback tool will continue to be used by the library as a way to engage students in the process of improving library services. Samples of the survey invitation and survey itself are included in the paper. M. Venner

Armstrong, D. (2010). A qualitative study of undergraduate students’ approaches, perceptions, and use of online tools. Ed.D. dissertation, University of San Francisco, United States — California. Retrieved May 7, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3416992).
This dissertation investigates undergraduate students’ experiences with and understanding of online courses at two religiously affiliated Northern California colleges. The study describes motivational and learner characteristics within online classes, and positive and negative aspects of online courses as experienced by students. The author makes suggestions for improvement for teaching online courses, and discusses how students’ use of tools affects the selection of their approach to learning. Also discussed within this paper are the roles of communication in shaping students’ perceptions and approach to learning, the importance of course organization to student learning and success, how the learning environment influences students’ approaches to learning, students perception of online learning as being less academically difficult than face-to-face education, and lastly, students’ preference to use nonacademic resources instead of the university library. E. Blankenship

Barnes, C. (2013). MOOCs: The challenges for academic librarians. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 44(3), 163-175. doi:10.1080/00048623.2013.821048

Bartnik, L. (2010). Delivered! A mid-sized academic library’s experience with distance education. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1-2), 43-52.
A rise in the number of Murray State University’s distance education programs, coupled with accreditation agencies’ requirements of equal services for distance students, prompted librarians to extend their newly adopted use of ILLiad for document delivery to the faculty and students involved with these programs. Librarians utilize research instruction in a variety of ways to market this service to both groups, such as targeting courses at the main campus with students enrolled who may also take classes online or at the satellite campuses. Further, they attend faculty meetings, present at campus forums, take advantage of a strong relationship with the Bachelor of Independent Studies program, use Eluminate on Blackboard, produce brochures, and create tutorials with Camtasia. In their continuing effort to offer the same educational experience to distance students as traditional students, librarians now employ social media and other Web 2.0 technologies to promote their services. T. Carter

Bartnik, L., Farmer, K., Ireland, A., Murray, L., & Robinson, J. (2010). We will be assimilated: Five experiences in embedded librarianship. Public Services Quarterly, 6(2-3), 150-164.
Due to emerging technologies, the notions of brick and mortar libraries with “traditional” librarians seated behind reference desks have been changing for several years. In this article, five reference librarians at Murray State University chronicle their efforts to assimilate within colleges on campus as embedded librarians. Each librarian explains her personal experience with one of the following colleges: Business, Education, Science, Engineering & Technology, Humanities & Fine Arts, and Health Sciences & Human Services. The librarians utilize a wide-range of methods, varying in intensity, to reach the subject faculty. These approaches include: daily office hours within the colleges, weekly office hours within the colleges, the implementation of the “roving office” or roving librarian model, and embedding library components within Blackboard. Each librarian also shares the unique situations and challenges she faced for each college. T. Carter

Behr, M., & Hill, R. (2012). Mining e-reserves data for collection assessment: An analysis of how instructors use library collections to support distance learners. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 159-179.
In this paper Behr and Hill set the stage for defining why funding resources for collection development for libraries has become critical, especially in the state of Michigan. With library budgets decreasing, identifying useful materials for distance learners requires examining services distance learners use, such as electronic reserves. Electronic reserves enable libraries to see what materials faculty want their students to use, how often they are being accessed and whether they are from the library’s already existing collection.  This paper analyzes the usage of electronic reserves at Western Michigan University and Central Michigan University by conducting an inventory of those items and their usage by distance learners.  A thorough literature review has been conducted to shed light on the issues surrounding electronic reserves, such as copyright and faculty usage.  The electronic reserves services of both Western Michigan University and Central Michigan University are examined in this paper. Methodologies of their examinations are described in useful detail.  The results are categorized into formats of electronic reserve material, sources of electronic material and their scholarly statuses. Behr and Hill also examined the media publication dates of the items on electronic reserves to see how current the materials were.  Overall they found that the majority of items on e-reserve were owned by the libraries and garnered a better understanding of what materials make up electronic reserve collections. M. Venner

Bentley, Y., Shegunshi, A., & Scannell, M. (2010). Evaluating the impact of distance learning support systems on the learning experience of MBA students in a global context. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 8(2), 51-62.
The authors investigated the distance learning support services in the United Kingdom overseas MBA online program. Support systems investigated were CD-Roms that accompanied the course, library services, handbooks, chat with needed professionals, access to professors, assignment feedback and overall experience. The students were surveyed twice. It was found that the results and improvements made from the first survey had enhanced the program for the students who were surveyed at the end of the second program. L. Cheresnowski

Bezet, A. (2013). Free prize inside! Embedded librarianship and faculty collaboration at a small-sized private university. Reference Librarian, 54(3), 181-219. doi:10.1080/02763877.2013.770351

Block, J. (2010). Distance education and the digital divide: An academic perspective. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 13(1). Retrieved from
This paper addresses the digital divide in regard to the speed of access of internet connections, race, location, and socio-economic groups. It emphasizes the reliance of distance education programs on broadband connections and the discord of many learners with out-dated equipment and dial-up modems. A solution is discussed through the use of wireless networks. L. Cheresnowski

Brahme, M. & Gabriel, L. (2012). Are students keeping up with the e-book evolution? Are e-books keeping up with students’ evolving needs? Distance students and e-book usage, a survey. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 180-198. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705109
While students seem surprised with the ease of accessing electronic books, they are frustrated with features that don’t satisfy their needs. Different vendors’ platforms offer many of the same features, but are used differently. Patrons expect the use of library e-books to be as easy as using a Kindle. However, downloading applications from various platforms is confusing to even tech-savvy patrons. In-person questions were easily identified and were primarily about downloading entire books, printing chapters and/or books, and length of availability of the book. Pepperdine librarians surveyed graduate distance students about their experiences and preferences with e-books. The survey showed most had used tablet readers, over a third had used hand-held devices, 50% had used e-books discovered through the catalog, and 14% had never used an e-book. Drawbacks identified included a lack of books on relevant titles, especially textbooks; “not all pages viewable;” navigation and printing issues; and a lack of notetaking/highlighting ability. Most preferred to use the tablet or iPad format and wanted to be able to print portions of the text. Type of material or purpose was important in opting for an e-book. While on-campus students complained about screen fatigue, the majority of the distance students indicated they could read on screen for at least an hour or longer. Most students felt that e-books have gotten easier to use and many believe the features have improved.  A third indicated they thought they had gotten better at using e-books. Over one quarter hadn’t noticed any changes in e-books. As further evidence confirming that students aren’t keeping up, a majority did not know they could highlight or take notes. Brahme and Gabriel speculate that the findings are mixed because students aren’t aware of all the features or the extensive number of formats available and because “keeping up” is challenging. B. Avery

Brooke, C., McKinney, P., & Donoghue, A. (2013). Provision of distance learner support services at UK universities: Identification of best practice and institutional case study. Library Trends, 61(3), 613-635. doi:10.1353/lib.2013.0003

Brouse, C. H., McKnight, K. R., Basch, C. E., & LeBlanc, M. (2010). A pilot study of instructor factors and student preferences. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 38(1), 51-62.
Brouse and his team explored students’ perceptions about services and tools that could possibly enhance the online learning experience. Based on a survey of 96 students in online health classes, communication with teachers (such as emailed announcements and posting reminders) were the most useful service in creating a useful course. Online “office hours” and asynchronous communications with instructors via the message board were seen as dramatically less important. This study will have implications for distance librarians exploring the most effective and efficient means to provide reference and instruction services to online students. S. Clark

Brumfield, E. (2010). Applying the critical theory of library technology to distance library services. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1-2), 63-71.
The past few years have seen an increase in the use of critical theory to explore issues within library and information studies, such as James Elmborg’s use of Freire’s critical pedagogy to develop a critical theory of information literacy. In a similar vein, Brumfield applies Pyati’s critical theory of library technology to analyze “the social constructs of library technology” at work in distance librarianship. This article poses a framework for assessing distance service effectiveness that goes beyond financial costs and student retention, and will prove provocative reading for those who view distance library services as a means to empower traditionally underserved learners. S. Clark

Cannady, R., Fagerheim, B., Williams, B., & Steiner, H. (2013). Diving into distance learning librarianship: Tips and advice for new and seasoned professionals. College & Research Libraries News, 74(5), 254-261.

Cannady, R. E. (2011). Fostering library as place for distance students: Best practices from two universities. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 23(3), 286-289. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2011.601242
Cannady reports on a presentation delivered at the 2011 ACRL Conference. Beth Filar-Williams of University of North Carolina-Greensboro and Heidi Steiner, Distance Learning Librarian at Norwich University, discussed their libraries’ efforts to foster a sense of “library as place” for their distance learning populations. The presenters discussed how they used technology and the human touch to address issues of access, environment, resources, point of need, instruction, and “being real”. This is a brief and worthwhile article with several easy-to-implement tips for distance library services. S. Clark

Casey, A. M. (2012). The knowledge base as an extension of distance learning reference service. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 212-223.
In this article Anne Marie Casey reports the results of her study of distance learning librarians’ opinions on the practicality, feasibility, and desirability of a knowledge base developed from institutional virtual reference interactions to support distance learners. Casey administered a survey to distance learning librarians via an electronic mailing list and conducted follow-up telephone interviews with volunteer respondents. The survey was designed to gather information about librarians’ current use of knowledge bases and their interest in implementing and maintaining them. The majority of survey respondents (76%) reported that their libraries don’t have a knowledge base. Of those, 59% are unsure they would implement one. The main reasons given in the survey were workload and quality control issues, privacy and intellectual property concerns, and the fact that reference interactions do not produce standard answers. Additional issues that were mentioned in the telephone interviews were intended audience for the knowledge base and buy in from staff. Telephone interviews also revealed a lack of clarity regarding the term “knowledge base,” which might have led to misreporting in survey responses. Casey suggests, “This discrepancy may stem from the fact that many people think of a knowledge base as a term that applies more to information technology than to libraries.” Some librarians responding to the survey might not have equated electronic pathfinders, FAQs on their websites, and archived email transactions with knowledge bases. C. Barboza

Chisholm, E., & Lamond, H. M. (2012). Information literacy development at a distance: Embedded or reality? Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 224-234. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705170
In this article, authors Chisholm and Lamond describe a project undertaken at Massey University (New Zealand) to integrate information literacy into distance education courses. The model, developed in 2010 and 2011, is based on the creation of “reusable online learning objects,” specifically generic in nature so as to facilitate re-use of learning objects across multiple disciplines. The learning objects used were a “collection of screen casts and online presentations.” The authors determined that there were four factors that influenced distance education students’ engagement with the learning objects. These factors were: placement of learning objects at the point of need, instructor referencing the learning objects, the need for information as a critical element of the course and a clear sense of the importance of the online component to success in the course. Lastly, the authors remind readers that unless librarians establish relationships with teaching faculty, information literacy content is ineffective. C. Caretto

Cote, D., Kraemer, B., Nahl, D., & Ashford, R. (2012). Academic librarians in second life.  Journal of Library Innovation, 3(1), 20-47.
Cote, Kraemer, Nahl, and Ashford attempt to outline the strengths and weaknesses of Second Life as a library platform. The article gives a brief overview of Second Life and its history as well as some speculation about what the future holds for Second Life and other virtual reality platforms. It goes on to provide the results from a survey given to 67 self-selected and self-identified Second Life librarians. The paper quickly covers the multiple choice responses and focuses a majority of its text on responses to the open-ended questions, covering both how they were coded and what they were. Responses, while mostly positive, do dig into the meat of the challenges of a Second Life presence, making this an excellent read for librarians who are considering providing these services. The article could also be used to illustrate to academic institutions benefits of the substantial time investments needed to provide virtual library services in Second Life. The point is made that Second Life is currently the most established and populated virtual reality software platform, but many results of the study could be transferred across platforms. K. Griffiths

de Groot, J., & Branch, J. L. (2011). Looking toward the future: Competences for 21st-century teacher-librarians. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 57(3), 288-297.
The article reports on a study that explored the experiences and attitudes of M Ed graduates of the Teacher Librarianship by Distance Learning (TLDL) program at the University of Alberta. The study, conducted through an online survey among a sample of twenty-eight recent graduates, found that the teacher-librarians viewed technological aspects and leadership issues as the key components to be addressed in their education. On the basis of the feedback, the courses of the TLDL program were restructured by including new courses or redesigning the irrelevant ones, so as to integrate those competencies needed for 21st-century teacher-librarians. The authors, who are instructors in the program, presume that the study could provide directions to other teacher-librarianship programs as well as continuing education programs. C. George

Diffin, J., Chirombo, F., Nangle, D., & de Jong, M. (2010). A point to share: Streamlining access services workflow through online collaboration, communication, and storage with Microsoft SharePoint. Journal of Web Librarianship, 4(2-3), 225-237.
The article explains the way in which the University of Maryland University College’s Document Management (DM) team developed a knowledge management system. The DM team decided to reorganize the existing print-dominated document management mechanism into an integrated Knowledge Management System (KMS). They have identified three crucial issues to be addressed for smooth functioning and creation of KMS: communication, collaboration and storage. After strategically analyzing the needs in terms of job responsibilities, available resources, and professional roles, the team selected MS SharePoint as the platform. The article elucidates the background of the change, the reasons for selecting the particular platform, implementation, and facilitation of collaboration, communication and storage efficiency. C. George

Erich, A. (2011). The role of the university library in the e-learning process. Proceedings of the International Conference on Library & Information Science/ Conferinta Internationala De Biblioteconomie Si Stiinta Informari, 289-292.
Erich discusses the changing role of the university library in the e-learning process. As university libraries become a key player in support of teaching, learning and information dissemination, their role as a collection of resources diminishes. As knowledge experts with the ability to identify, evaluate, organize, synthesize and communicate information and knowledge, the librarians impact universities’ strategic educational outcomes as a center of learning. Benefits and strategies of an e-learning systems are articulated as well as a framework (5 C’s): Connection; Content; Capacity; Conservation and Collaboration.  Additionally, a list of tactics to improve the relationship between e-learning and the university library suggests the crucial role libraries play in engaged teaching and research. M. Giltrud

Grabowsky, A. (2013). Information and interaction needs of distance students: Are academic libraries meeting the challenge? Georgia Library Quarterly, 50(2), 12-18. Retrieved from

Guder, C. (2010). Patrons and pedagogy: A look at the theory of connectivism. Public Services Quarterly, 6(1), 36-42.
This article introduces a new learning theory called “connectivism” and begins the discussion of how libraries and librarians can incorporate this theory into online library instruction and reference services. Beginning with a description of services libraries already offer, the article shows that libraries already do incorporate this new learning theory by being student-centered and helping students connect to the information they need. It continues, however, to discuss ways that libraries and librarians can increasingly incorporate this approach to learning into the services that are offered. C. Girton

Hartnett, E., & Thompson, C. (2010). From tedious to timely: Screencasting to troubleshoot electronic resource issues. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 22(3-4), 102-112.
In this article, the authors argue that screencasting can be used to assist patrons in more and different ways than librarians currently utilize. Screencasting programs and software are reviewed in this article, giving a reader who is new to this area good information on finding the right software for his or her needs. The authors also give specific examples of ways their libraries have used screencasting software to help troubleshoot issues. These examples are helpful, especially for those who are new to using screencasting to provide reference services. C. Girton

Hawes, S. (2011). Playing to win: Embedded librarians in online classrooms. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1-2), 56-66.
This article provides a step-by-step account of how the author transformed library services to distance learning students at her library/university. The author proposes that this course of action can be used by other librarians who would like to provide additional reference services to online users. By using this plan, the author helped her library advance from only providing online chat during certain hours to expanding to embedded librarian services for online classes offered by the campus. C. Girton

Hemming, W., Johnstone, B. T., & Montet, M. (2012). Create a sense of place for the mobile learner. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(304), 312-322.
This article explores the notion of “library as place” in a virtual context (“virtual space as place”) with regard to Bucks Community College Library’s online offerings in response to its increasing population of mobile users. A model for the “virtual library as place” is introduced to provide a more holistic understanding of information literacy for online users. Expanding their work as embedded librarians to offering all online library users information literacy support, the authors also detail their library’s journey of creating a comprehensive mobile platform that links users to library resources and services, including different modes of research assistance. With the authors adopting the standpoint of all library users being potential distance or online library users, this article is intended for librarians serving on-campus as well as distance education populations. A. Knight

Herring, S. (2010). Research on libraries and distance education: An analysis of articles published 1999-2009. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(3), 137-146.
Citations, abstracts, and indexing terms for 472 professional journal articles on library services in distance education, published from 1999 through 2009, were analyzed to determine major topics, key issues, trends in research, methodologies used, and to identify leading journals. Major databases were searched and citations downloaded and entered into Excel to create the research database. Duplicates and short items were eliminated, leaving only research articles. Up to three key concepts were identified for each article, totaling fifty-eight and then consolidated into thirteen broad categories. Methodologies were identified from article abstracts. Categories, methodologies, and individual journals were analyzed for frequency of use over time. The most frequently occurring broad category was Access to services and resources with 23%. After that, Instruction was second at 15%, Management third at 9%, with Impact and Issues and Technology both at 8%. A count of research methodologies found Descriptive examples at 153, Survey, 54, Mixed methods, 32, Case study, 20. Over time, Descriptive examples decreased from 80% to 33% of the annual total as use of more diverse methodologies increased. The 472 articles appeared in 123 journals with only eight publishing ten or more articles. Shown to increase over time were both the frequency of articles and the complexity and sophistication of research methodologies. H. Gover

Hill, J., & Patterson, C. (2013). Assessment from a distance: A case study implementing focus groups at an online library. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 20(3-4), 399-413. doi:10.1080/10691316.2013.829376

Hoffman, S., & Ramin, L. (2010). Best practices for librarians embedded in online courses. Public Services Quarterly, 6(2-3), 292-305.
Best practices were derived from a selective review of the most recent literature, a case study of Ramin’s experiences as an embedded librarian, and Hoffman’s mixed-methods study of embedded librarianship at six institutions. The literature review was divided into the following categories: equivalent access, institutional relevancy, faculty interest, purposes, activities, different models, and role of the librarian. The most significant outcome of the mixed-methods study was that personal interaction with a librarian builds a stronger relationship between online students or instructors and the library, perhaps even with the institution itself. A librarian’s presence in an online course is more than an academic solution: it is a powerful outreach tool. The derived best practices were organized into four overall categories: preparing and developing the service; time management; use of the course management software; and avoiding technical problems. H. Gover

Holloway, K. (2011). Outreach to distance students: A case study of a new distance librarian. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1-2), 25-33.
This article details the development of a new distance librarian and the methods she used to educate distance students and perform outreach at California State University-Bakersfield. The author recommends a study of the library’s distance population and their demographics and then using that information to focus on initiatives that will reach the largest amount of students. Among the methods that are discussed are faculty-librarian collaboration, reference interviews (both in-person and online), and embedded librarianship. The author stresses the need for a mix of traditional librarianship, technology and creativity to achieve results. C. Hanrahan

Huang, L. (2010). Planning and implementation framework for a hybrid e-learning model: The context of a part-time LIS postgraduate programme. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42(1), 45-69.
Due to the lack of a well-structured full-time graduate program for library and information science in Taiwan, a need for a part-time online program has been identified. This article explores what it would take to develop such a program (in terms of finances, marketing and feasibility) and also names some of the strengths and weaknesses of online learning in terms of student success. It identifies a four-element model (cost, service, quality and flexibility) that should be taken into account when pursuing this type of opportunity. The article also clarifies what is needed for other institutions considering this type of program. C. Hanrahan

Johnson, K., & Fabbro, E. (2013). The role of academic libraries. In M. G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (3rd ed., pp. 231-245). New York: Routledge.

Kearns, L. R., & Frey, B. A. (2010). Web 2.0 technologies and back channel communication in an online learning community. Techtrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 54(4), 41-51.
This article explored which web 2.0 technologies were used by participants to communicate with each other outside the formal structure of courses. In the context of study of online learning community development, surveys were distributed to library science students and focus groups were implemented. Distance learning students used more technologies than campus based students. While younger students tended to prefer mobile technologies aimed at socializing, older students tended to experiment more with a wider range of web tools focused on collaborative learning. The most frequent topics of communication were related to assignment and program requirements. L. Haycock

Leonard, E., & Morasch, M. J. (2012). If you can make it there, you can make it anywhere: Providing reference and instructional library services in the virtual environment. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(4), 257-267. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.731946
This article focuses on professional competencies that sustain quality, user-centered service and support of online students. Poignant scholarship and interview responses illustrate successful online librarianship in terms of reference, instruction, liaison work, technology proficiency, and even character traits. Notably, the sections on intellectual property competencies remind North American readers to remain aware of issues involving restricted information access and censorship affecting members of international communities and library users abroad. Library schools are also called upon to support student learning in this area in addition to the more standard information technology, interpersonal communication, and instruction competencies. The tips and insights offered throughout may serve as a provocative primer for those new to online librarianship, as well as a salutary reminder for those of us actively serving online users and mentoring future librarians. A. Knight

Lester J. (2011). Use of adjunct faculty in delivery of distance education in ALA-accredited LIS master’s programs in the U.S. and Canada. Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 52(3), 212-237.
It should come as no surprise that adjunct faculty are being employed more and more these days in the delivery of distance education across the curriculum. This article narrows the focus and explores the results of a study on the use of adjunct faculty in delivery of distance education by ALA-accredited master’s programs. It provides an overview of the literature, purpose of the study, methodology, findings, limitations and further research. In short, the results show adjunct faculty are employed to a greater degree in distance education delivery than in overall course delivery in these master’s programs. J. Hutson

Li, P. (2013). Effect of distance education on reference and instructional services in academic libraries. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(1), 77-96. doi:10.1080/10875301.2013.804018

Marken, J., & Dickinson, G. (2013). Perceptions of community of practice development in online graduate education. Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 54(4), 299-306.

Mehra, B., Black, K., & Lee, S. (2010). Perspectives of east Tennessee’s rural public librarians about the extent of need for professional library education: A pilot study. Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 51(3), 142-157.
A pilot study of the educational and training needs of rural librarians in East Tennessee was conducted to inform curriculum development at the University of Tennessee’s (UT) School of Information Science (SIS). Data was collected via a self-administered web-based survey, ongoing feedback from regional public librarians, and anecdotal feedback from regional planning and other library network gatherings. Analysis of the feedback indicated key information needs of the communities, key activities by rural information professionals, and a strong need for professional library education among library staff. This evidence resulted in a 2009-2012 grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Program to recruit and provide scholarships for rural East Tennessee paraprofessional library staff to enroll in an individually-tailored Library and Information Science master’s degree via UT SIS’ synchronous distance education program. J. Hutton

Mirtz, R. (2010). Spatial metaphors and distance learning library services: Why ‘where’ makes a difference. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 857-866. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488984
In a critical essay, Ruth Mirtz found that the terms used to describe distance-learning programs could affect the policies, attitudes, and services to distance learners we serve. For example, universities use common terms such as extension, outreach, continuing, and distance to describe their missions and services provided for distance learners; however, those same terms often carry other meanings, steeped with historical or metaphorical implications, suggesting that distance learning programs are somehow unequal or mere separate appendages of the operations at the central university. Several examples are included to illustrate the metaphorical uses of some of the terms. Mirtz contends that librarians should remain committed to offering equal services and resources to face-to-face library users, as well as the distance learners, regardless of the labels used to define them. M. Thomas

Mon, L. (2010). A virtual graduation ceremony for online distance students. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 33(4). Retrieved from
Even though online education is increasing, students taking online courses have been shown to have increased levels of frustration and drop out at a higher rate than their on-campus counterparts. Florida State University experimented with hosting a virtual graduation ceremony in Second Life for graduates of the College of Communication and Information. The author provides a detailed overview of the planning process, identifies some of the issues that arose, and suggests improvements that may be made for future virtual ceremonies. A. Kepsel

Mon, Lorri, M. (2012). Professional avatars: Librarians and educators in virtual worlds. Journal of Documentation, 68(3), 318-329. doi:10.1108/00220411211225566
This study examines the establishment of identity and place in library and educational settings within the virtual world Second Life (SL). Feedback from interviews conducted with librarians and educators offer insight on strategic creation and habitation of professional “virtual selves” via avatars to evoke confidence in SL residents holding prominent notions of virtual worlds as gaming rather than learning environments. This article also serves in a broader capacity for those interested in game-based learning to consider the use of virtual spaces and identities to achieve desired learning outcomes. A. Knight

Morrison, K., & Priest, A. (2010). Intute Mobile Internet Detective. ALISS Quarterly 5(3), 18-20. Retrieved from
The Internet Detective is an online tutorial from Intute used to assist students with finding and using reliable information on the Internet. This article looks at the results of market research conducted by Intute in order to insure that a new mobile version of the tutorial meets the requirements of users. Results of the study revealed insight into users’ needs as well as how they use the Internet for academic research. A brief discussion of how Intute modified their new mobile product to appeal to their target audience is provided. A. Kepsel

Mullins, James L. (2012). Are MLS graduates being prepared for the changing and emerging roles that librarians must now assume within research libraries? Journal of Library Administration, 52(1), 124-132. doi:10.1080/01930826.2011.629966
Research libraries are being challenged to hire librarians with skills in technology, along with good interpersonal and communication skills. Research librarians are also being asked to help establish and work with new partnerships both on and off campus. These changing roles for research librarians have resulted in defining new roles while actually occupying these positions. Mullins’ purpose was to determine ways to ensure the training of MLS students to adequately address these roles. He conducted a volunteer, random study to ask nine questions regarding the hiring of new LIS graduates during the past three years. Nine respondents participated and the mean number of hires was five. Based on the responses, Mullins concluded that there will be a need for training after the new hire begins and that no assumptions could be made that all requisite skills would be present at hiring. However, Mullins also concluded that new hires would possess a desire to explore the possibilities for what could be and to  look at this as an opportunity.  D.B. Geier

Nicholas, P. (2010). Desk to the desktop–Digital reference service leveraging educational assistance in distance learning: Implications for Jamaica. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1-2), 18-29.
Universities in Jamaica are increasingly moving towards digital library services due to distributed student populations and the geographical spread of teaching sites. The author gives a brief overview of reference services and current approaches. Asynchronous and synchronous approaches to reference services are identified. The issues to be considered in implementing digital references services in Jamaica are applicable to any library considering a digital approach. A. Kepsel

Nickel, L. T., & Mulvihill, R. G. (2010). Serving unaffiliated distance learners: Strategies that work. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(3), 87-95.
Libraries everywhere are challenged to serve patrons in their own communities who are taking distance classes. University libraries are challenged trying to serve students who never enter the doors of the library. Rather than turn away from serving these patrons, libraries should create ways to attract unaffiliated users. As “twenty somethings” or older adults, these users already feel comfortable using libraries in their own communities. Many institutions offering distance classes also offer full-service libraries, but this article suggests ways for libraries to purposefully reach out to unaffiliated users. A lot of communication can be done through the library’s web site to market services that a library can offer to these patrons. Clear communication about available services will empower and welcome unaffiliated users, making them successful students no matter where they take their classes. J. Kind

Pitts, J., Coleman, J., & Bonella, L. (2013). Using distance patron data to improve library services and cross-campus collaboration. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(1), 55-75.

Raraigh-Hopper, J. (2010). Improving library services for distance learners: A literature review. Reference Librarian, 51(1), 69-78. doi:10.1080/02763870903389384
The author’s stated purpose is to compare library services provided to on-campus against services provided to off-campus students. Two of the reviewed articles showed that off campus students want convenience, familiarity and speed when searching; that online tutorials may enhance the familiarity factor and that using Bloom’s Taxonomy in developing online tutorials may aid in teaching effective research methods. Electronic reserves, embedded librarians, live chat, online subject and style guides can help bridge the gap between distance students and the library. Other suggestions for improving distance services are to maintain strong relationships between faculty and librarians, to assess and monitor services monthly, and to respond quickly to assessment data. N. Mactague

Roberts, S., & Hunter, D. (2011). New library, new librarian, new student: Using LibGuides to reach the virtual student. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1-2), 67-75.
This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using LibGuides as an online learning and content management tool. Librarians at Chattanooga State Community College introduced LibGuides in 2009, in an effort to expand outreach information literacy services to distance learners. In addition to providing a brief overview of the early use of print based pathfinders, the authors describe the benefits of virtual subject guides to librarians, faculty and students at Chattanooga State. These benefits include 24/7 remote access to library resources; links to embedded content such as databases, OPAC’s, course reserves, and video tutorials; easily customized and updated content; and greater collaboration between librarians and teaching faculty, because of administrative capabilities in the LibGuides interface. The authors note that although the use of virtual learning tools may hold greater appeal to those students with stronger self-motivation, feedback from the college community was mostly positive. L. Marcus

Robinson, J., & Kim, D. (2010). Creating customizable subject guides at your library to support online, distance and traditional education: Comparing three self-developed and one commercial online subject guide. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(4), 185-196.
In the Spring 2010 semester, librarians at Murray State University made the switch from self-developed online subject guides to Springshare’s LibGuides learning management system. This study compares three self-developed in house guides with the commercially produced LibGuides. Authors Robinson and Kim also examine the role of virtual subject guides in expanding distance learning programs and offer recommendations to institutions just entering the realm of online learning management systems. Results of the study indicate that integration of Web 2.0 technologies is a key factor in the use of self-developed and commercially produced guides. In addition, the availability of systems librarians to collaborate with librarians and faculty is crucial to the successful integration of these guides into information literacy and distance learning programs. L. Marcus

Shell, L. B., Duvernay, J., Ewbank, A., Konomos, P., Leaming, A., & Sylvester, G. (2010). A comprehensive plan for library support of online and extended education. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 951-971. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488996
Responding to the increased institutional emphasis on online education at Arizona State University (ASU), the ASU Libraries formed a task force to make recommendations on information literacy and access to library materials for students enrolled in online courses and degree programs. The Online and Extended Education (ONYX) Task Force met during summer and fall of 2009 to develop the Comprehensive Plan for Library Support of Online Programs which includes: 1) craft guiding principles for supporting online students and programs; 2) conduct a needs assessment and environmental scan; and 3) recommend a sustainable and scalable plan for library support of online and extended education. This article is a detailed discussion of the process of developing the plan. R. Ulrey

Solorzano, R. M. (2013). Adding value at the desk: How technology and user expectations are changing reference work. Reference Librarian, 54(2), 89-102.

Sullo, E., Harrod, T., Butera, G., & Gomes, A. (2012). Rethinking library service to distance education students: Analyzing the embedded librarian model. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 31(1), 25-33. doi:10.1080/02763869.2012.641822
Embedded librarians work directly with their customers either in physical locations, such as an academic department, or in a virtual space, as in a computer-based distance learning setting.  In 2009 the Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library at The George Washington University launched a virtual embedded librarian service to better understand the needs of distance education students and to raise their awareness of library resources and services.  Students received individual attention and support from the librarians, who were able to proactively address the students’ needs. A survey revealed seven categories of student questions, including citation management and using library resources, enabling future programs to target areas of greatest need. The service grew from one librarian embedded in one class to six librarians in numerous classes and multiple class sections in just two years. Anecdotal feedback, as well as the rapid growth of the service, indicates the value of Himmelfarb’s embedded librarian program and the feasibility of using embedded librarians in health sciences education. In future semesters pre- and post-surveys will be used to assess students’ experiences with using library resources and their opinions of librarians’ participation in classes. Librarians identified several best practices for serving distance education students, including the importance of pre-planning with course instructors, the value of introductions by the instructors and by the librarians themselves, and the need to leverage technology beyond the discussion board and e-mail. M. Heyd

Turner, D., & Myer, S. (2010). Creating a media-rich online induction. SCONUL Focus, (48), 13-16.
Turner and Myer, librarians at Teesside University in the United Kingdom, describe how they redesigned their Web-based induction (orientation) program for off-campus students so that it would be as engaging and interactive as the library’s face-to-face orientation for on-campus students. The authors discuss limitations they faced, such as limited time and relatively little experience producing videos. However, as Turner and Myer note, students probably do not expect absolutely professional-quality video, because they are used to more informal content on sites like Youtube. The authors go on to describe their goals for the online orientation and methods of evaluating it, including gathering feedback from students. This article is an insightful account of how librarians planned and produced video content for a library orientation for off-campus learners; it will be of interest to distance librarians facing similar tasks. R. Miller

Weissman, N., & Swan, K. (2013). Bringing the librarian to online courses: Cognitive, social, and teaching presence. In A. Sigal (Ed.), Advancing library education: Technological innovation and instructional design. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Whiting, P., & Orr, P. (2013). Evaluating library support for a new graduate program: Finding harmony with a mixed method approach. Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 88-98.

Woodard, A. (2010). From zero to Web 2.0: Part 3. Computers in Libraries, 30(1), 27-28.
In the third installment of her report, the author examines the progress that Vise Library at Cumberland University has made toward implementing elements of Web 2.0 technology. Advances in online products such as tutorials and a Facebook presence have been made, while other areas remain works in progress. M. Schumacher

Chapter 4: Organizational Issues (Organization and Planning; Training; Guidelines, Standards and Quality Assurance, Publicity and Marketing; Copyright)

Adams, M. (2012). Distant learners and the library in 2012. Library Issues, 32(6), 1-4.
In recent years, many colleges and universities have begun offering online courses for students who may be returning to school after an extended period of time or students who live far away from a physical library. The library needs to have a role in providing resources for these and other online students that differs from the role it has for providing resources for students in the physical library. There are many ways that libraries can reach online and distance learners such as LibGuides, chat software or an embedded librarian program. Educating the students and faculty about copyright issues is a major issue that libraries need to keep in mind when dealing with online courses. There are many other things that libraries can do to deal with these and other distance issues such as developing LibGuides for each program that is taught online, having a librarian that is the contact person for distance programs and sending out information to faculty and distance education students on library resources and other pertinent items. An assessment of the programs that the library offers to distance learners needs to be done in order to make sure that the library is offering the best services to these individuals as they can. Finally, a major door to the library for online and distant students and faculty is the library webpage. Libraries need to make sure that they have adequate resources for these students and faculty and that they are easy to access and easy to find. R. McWilliams

Cannady, R., Fagerheim, B., Williams, B., & Steiner, H. (2013). Diving into distance learning librarianship: Tips and advice for new and seasoned professionals. College & Research Libraries News, 74(5), 254-261.

Cassner, M., & Adams, K. E. (2012). Continuing education for distance librarians. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(2), 117-128. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.694338
All librarians have to keep up with changes and new ideas in the library field and this is especially true for distance librarians and other librarians who deal with distance education. Money and time can be a major issue when keeping up with different professional development opportunities. However, lack of funds does not mean that there are not free or low cost opportunities available. Librarians can attend conferences for all librarians as well as conferences specific to distance learning. There are also library associations that they can join that offer a wide variety of learning opportunities as well as support from other librarians. Committee work is an excellent way to get involved with these associations as well. Those new to the profession or being a distance librarian can seek out mentors who they can turn to with questions or learn from. Webinars and blogs are free ways to stay up to date in the field and there are also online courses that librarians can take that may cost more but can also be beneficial. Professional journals are also a great way to stay up to the date in the field. Outside organizations or even your own college or university can also be good places to find learning opportunities. R. McWilliams

Dames, K. (2010). Educational use in the digital age. Information Today, 27(4), 18.
Dames, copyright and information policy advisor for Syracuse University Library, provides an overview of fair-use controversies in online learning, specifically, the use of streaming video in online classes and copyright issues in relation to e-reserves. The article serves as a useful introduction to those controversies and the roles played by organizations such as the Association for Information and Media Equipment (AIME), the Association of American Publishers (AAP), and the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). Dames asserts that institutions of higher learning need to make a stronger claim for their rights to fair use in the online classroom. Conversely, Dames also calls on universities to carefully enforce copyright law on campus and in virtual classes. R. Miller

Foster, M., Wilson, H., Allensworth, N., & Sands, D. T. (2010). Marketing research guides: An online experiment with LibGuides. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 602-616. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488922
This study, conducted by librarians at the J. Paul Leonard Library at San Francisco State University, evaluates the impact of their plan for marketing LibGuides online as compared to promoting them during library instruction sessions. Specific findings are provided for the library’s attempts at publicizing LibGuides through the library’s homepage, blog, Twitter and Facebook sites, and faculty emails versus the promotion of LibGuides through library instruction interactions. Thought provoking commentary addresses the theoretical bases of word of mouth (WOM) marketing and relationship marketing (RM) underlying social media platforms and the implications this can have for promoting library products (rather than librarians) through these online forums. Libraries at any stage of their online marketing planning could benefit from the findings of this study. A. Knight

Fritts, J., & Casey, A. (2010). Who trains distance librarians? A study of the training and development needs of distance learning librarians. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 617-627. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488925
The authors recap the history of distance learning and currently-available support services for distance learning librarians. The development and distribution of a brief 13-question survey allowed the authors to gather information addressing how distance learning librarians learned specific aspects of their jobs, whether through formal library education, participation in library associations, conference attendance, or on the job. Open-ended questions discovered which training formats were recommended and what other sources of training were received. Results indicated that most look to ALA’s Distance Learning Section as the primary source for training opportunities and many advocate having representatives from the Distance Learning Section do outreach to library schools in order to encourage them to provide stronger education in this area. J. Wilson

Gall, D. (2010). Librarian like a rock star: Using your personal brand to promote your services and reach distant users. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 628-637. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488928
The author makes a case for librarians to apply the concepts of personal branding and relationship marketing to enhance their professional persona to create a more memorable connection to users. This article stands out in its ability to go beyond the notion of marketing for marketing’s sake by emphasizing the importance of maintaining a solid reputation as a librarian in order to create a successful personal branding campaign. Anecdotal evidence is shared by the author about his experience branding himself as Dan the Librarian, a reliable resource for the remote users he serves. Distance librarians and library liaisons looking to strengthen their connection and visibility with their target service community will benefit from the author’s practical advice. A. Knight

Gonzalez, A. C., & Westbrock, T. (2010). Reaching out with LibGuides: Establishing a working set of best practices. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 638-656. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488941
This article documents a case study of the planning, implementation, promotion, and assessment of LibGuides at the New Mexico State University Library. The literature review and works cited throughout the article provide readers with a wealth of input from the professional literature regarding best practices for research guides in general. Librarians interested in leveraging the usefulness of their research guides may find inspiration in the “Benefits” section of the article, which highlights powerful ways LibGuides were developed by NMSU librarians to go beyond the traditional subject guide model to better serve more specific student research needs and strengthen librarian-faculty collaboration. The experience and advice shared throughout the article involving workflow, support, buy-in, and staffing issues encountered with NMSU’s LibGuides project could also help to inform research guide development, whether using the LibGuides platform or other models. A. Knight

Grabowsky, A. (2013). Information and interaction needs of distance students: Are academic libraries meeting the challenge? Georgia Library Quarterly, 50(2), 12-18. Retrieved from

Hill, J. B., Li, H., & Macheak, C. (2013). Current practices in distance learning library services at urban and metropolitan universities. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 313-322. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.732550

Jaszi, P. A., Adler, P., Butler, B., & Aufderheide, P. (2010, December 20). Fair use challenges in academic and research libraries. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved from
Researchers from the Association of Research Libraries and American University conducted interviews with sixty-five librarians, to investigate how libraries employ fair use in support of teaching and learning, scholarship, curating and outreach, and service to differently abled communities. The report details a range of issues arising from librarians’ attempts to understand and comply with copyright law while meeting the needs of library users. Some interviewees reported having to curtail various projects and limit users’ access to materials for fear of incurring copyright liability. The report recommends the development of a code of best practices for academic librarians dealing with copyright issues. Furthermore, the report underlines academic librarians’ need for legal advice from in-house copyright experts. Such efforts, the report finds, will help librarians assert fair use rights in service of the academic community. R. Miller

Little, G. (2011). The revolution will be streamed online: Academic libraries and video. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(1), 70-72. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.10.009
This column focuses on the increasing use of streaming video by libraries, especially within the popular video site YouTube. In addition to covering the creation of promotional and marketing videos, the author explains how libraries are developing streaming videos to instruct users on information literacy concepts and the use of specific search tools. Examples are also provided for libraries utilizing streaming video and creating YouTube channels to share college and university archives. For those interested in exploring options of video streaming in their library, the “Other Options” and “Getting Started” sections of this column offer valuable food for thought. A. Knight

Lockerby, R., & Stillwell, B. (2010). Retooling library services for online students in tough economic times. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 779-788. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488964 This article outlines organizational changes implemented by librarians at San Diego, California’s National University to meet the needs of a rapidly growing number of online students. Strategic planning, staffing changes (including the creation of a Multimedia Services Department to develop online tutorials and other learning objects), and goals for future improvement are described. A brief history of the library and its previous organizational structure is provided for context. R. Shepard

Mee, S. (2013). “Outreach to international campuses: removing barriers and building relationships.” Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 1-17.

Nicol, E., & Crook, L. (2013). “Now it’s necessary: Virtual reference services at Washington State University, Pullman.” Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(2), 161-168.

Nunn, B., & Ruane, E. (2011). Marketing gets personal: Promoting reference staff to reach users. Journal of Library Administration, 51(3), 291-300. doi:10.1080/01930826.2011.556945
In their article, Nunn and Ruane discuss strategies for marketing reference services to university students. They note that the most successful marketing initiatives are ones that focus on students and that give clear examples of how librarians can help meet students’ needs, finding them “a better answer, faster” (p. 296). The authors also stress the importance of soliciting student feedback and incorporating it into marketing efforts. Although the authors acknowledge that “[t]here is no single method for reaching library users” (p. 295), they suggest that any methods that create a personal connection between librarians and the members of their community can be highly effective at improving the library’s image in the community and can also have the effect of increasing library use. Such methods include sending librarians to users’ locations (aka “roving reference” or “librarians on location”), highlighting staff profiles on promotional material, and partnering with faculty to design assignments for students. C. Thomes

Rebmann, K.R., Molitor, S., & Rainey, B. (2012). Distance Learning Skills and Responsibilities: A Content Analysis of Job Announcements 1996-2010. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6,100-116. DOI: 10.1080/1533290X.2012.693904
Rebmann, Molitor, and Rainey reviewed archived job descriptions for librarians using advertisement content analysis to determine if distance learning skillsets were growing. They precede their findings with a review of the literature looking at definitions of distance learning and trends. The literature review suggested that libraries are no longer the preferred place of access for remote digital information, and that the library resources such as reading rooms and book stacks are visited less frequently by digital learners. The literature review also suggested that library positions have grown to include services for digital learners.

Rebmann et al. examined more than 19,000 job advertisements published between 1996-2010 in an effort to answer three research questions which included identifying trends for jobs requiring distance learning skills, identifying areas of the library that require distance learning competencies, and identifying jobs that are focused or have a dedicated purpose to distance learning. Conclusions included the fact that there were years where there were fewer advertisements for total jobs and that during the years 1996-1998, there was a rapid increase in the amount of jobs requiring distance learning skills. From 1999-2000, the number of listings decreased but the need for distance learning skills remained stable. Listings dropped from 2007-2010. They also concluded that there is some lack of clarity as to whether the demand for focused distance learning positions is as strong as in the past.

Rebmann et al. also concluded that positions in distance librarianship occurred most often in public service areas, administration, information technology, and technical services. They also suggested that the most common term for positions that focused on distance learning was “Distance Learning Librarian,” followed by “Distance Education Librarian”. D. B. Geier

Wang, Y., & Baker, M. (2013). “Effectively managing copyright clearance: Electronic reserves in a large distance education university.” Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 210-219.

White, L. (2010). Aligning assessment to organizational performance in distance education service delivery. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 997-1016. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.489005
After reviewing the library professional literature on assessment, the author concludes that little has been written on the need to align assessment practices in libraries with the changing library environment and the demands for increased library accountability from both internal and external stakeholders. The rise of distance education, in particular, creates a need for new, effective, comprehensive assessment processes lest libraries face both negative short-term tactical consequences such as resource and service reductions and/or negative, long-term, strategic consequences such as organizational restructuring or elimination. The author argues that libraries seeking aligned assessment processes must develop “a proactive culture of assessment,” review all library services with consistent metrics, provide access to assessment results for all library stakeholders, and constantly innovate using outside methods and expertise. Such libraries will survive and thrive in a service environment shaped by the mission/scope of the library, resources, participation/stakeholders, and technology. The article includes a detailed, five-step conceptual model for the progressive Alignment of Library Assessment Practices to the Service Environment, from Nonaligned to the Environmental Alignment Step in which all stakeholders understand and value the results of assessment and assessment results shape all strategic plans and decisions in the library. J. Wood

White, L. N. (2010). Assessment planning for distance education library services: Strategic roadmaps for determining and reporting organizational performance and value. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7-8), 1017-1026. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.489007
This review article examines and compares the literature on assessment practices in the fields of library and information science and business. The findings identify shortcomings of library assessment practices, which allow libraries to prove their overall financial impact and value as organizations to their stakeholders. A broad picture of business assessment practices is also identified and distinguished by the author as a model for libraries to quantify their value as an organization while using such data to inform strategic planning. The concept of reporting on intangible values is presented as a possible solution for libraries to report on “library goodness factors,” defined as intellectual capital, social capital, and human capital. Table 2, titled “Possible Assessment Plan Components and Use Focus Areas,” may prove especially useful for administrators and librarians involved with assessment planning. A. Knight

Chapter 5: Managing E-Resources

Anbu K., J. P., Kataria, S., & Ram, S. (2013). Dynamics of managing electronic resources: Electronic resource management system (ERMS) initiatives. DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology, 33(4), 300-305. doi:10.14429/djlit.33.4885

Bazeley, J. W., & Yoose, B. (2013). Notes on operations. Library Resources & Technical Services, 57(2), 118-127. doi:10.5860/lrts.57n1.118

Beals, N. (2010). Revisiting Wayne State University’s ERM system: Six years later. Against the Grain, 22(2), 20-22.
This article follows up an earlier case study that Beals wrote when her library purchased the electronic resources management (ERM) system Innovative Interfaces Millenium. Beals notes the importance of regularly evaluating an ERM system after it has been purchased, to determine whether it is meeting the needs of the library; indeed, explicity establising the library’s needs and goals is a critical part of planning for and purchasing an ERM system. As Beals writes, her library’s use of the ERM system has evolved so that the ERM is widely intergrated in the staff’s workflow, with increased efficiency as a result. Beals addresses issues such as training staff and the ERM’s ability to interface with other library systems. Beals writes about challenges, too: for example, having to manually enter new acquisitions into the ERM and managing updates to the system. The article provides an interesting perspective on the evaluation and maintenance of an ERM system purchased several years earlier. R. Miller

Beisler, A., & Kurt, L. (2012). E-book workflow from inquiry to access: Facing the challenges to implementing E-book access at the University of Nevada, Reno. Collaborative Librarianship, 4(3), 96-116.
Beisler and Kurt detail the University of Nevada, Reno Library’s process of creating a more optimal e-books workflow.  Starting in 2009, with the library’s e-book acquisitions increasing greatly and the continuing inconsistency within the e-book publishing industry, the library decided that a new e-book workflow needed to be created as the e-book format did not fit into any of the pre-existing workflows.  In an effort to investigate what type of workflow was required, the library formed a cross-departmental team that focused on collaboration and communication within the library, reviewed current processes and created new ones.  The taskforce was directed to create a new workflow and focused on all stages of workflow from the point of inquiry to its end of life (although the authors acknowledge that end of life process needs to be further investigated).  The taskforce employed software tools to manage the e-books that were already available to staff.

This article also describes the findings of the taskforce, the first of which was the creation of a new workflow.  This new workflow was divided into four processes: Assessment/Acquisition (which was further divided into three e-book paths based on licensing terms); Access; Maintenance and Troubleshooting; and End of Life.  The new workflow was mapped out and the processes were entered into a collaborative Microsoft SharePoint form, which was visible and editable by all involved in the e-book process.  A larger result was the reformation of traditional Technical Services departments, specifically the merging of the Acquisitions department and the E-Resources & Resources department into E-Resources and Acquisition Services. J. Kolendo

Blake, K., & Collins, M. (2010). Controlling chaos: Management of electronic journal holdings in an academic library environment. Serials Review, 36(4), 242-250. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2010.08.015
This article provides commentary on the challenges of managing electronic journal holdings in an academic library. After consulting librarians across the United States, the authors have discovered that it is an arduous task to keep electronic journals up to date and organized. Managing titles and coverage dates takes numerous hours because of titles being bought and sold to different publishers, which often creates voids in journal collections as the library’s rights to that information changes. The use of Electronic Resource Management Systems (ERMS) and similar resources is helping to minimize confusion of title location and dates of coverage, but ERMS have not been adopted by all academic communities. In order to keep better track of their collections, libraries are documenting the changes in electronic holdings by synchronizing access points and keeping update times as minimal as possible. Libraries are also incorporating access and administrative metadata management to keep track of frequent changes in journal and perpetual access. Innovations are becoming available for librarians, like EBSCO Rapid Renewal, CORAL, E-Matrix, and blogging, which help keep information organized and create easier ways to determine what electronic holdings are still available and which need to be assessed again. While the cost of managing electronic holdings is mostly in dedicated man hours, there is still a distinct benefit in keeping these resources organized and as up to date as possible. D. Moench

Bucknell, T. (2012). Garbage in, gospel out: Twelve reasons why librarians should not accept cost-per-download figures at face value. The Serials Librarian, 63(2), 192-212. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2012.680687
Bucknell’s article investigates potential problems with usage statistics, specifically cost-per-download, and advises that in order to avoid erroneous data librarians need to be aware of the limitations of statistical information. Bucknell lists 12 possible problems with statistical measures, some of which include: platform design affecting usage; the extent of content is not the same in each title; all subjects are not the same; usage spikes; and transfers between platforms and publishers can invalidate statistics. Because of these limitations, the author warns against cost per download and other usage statistics being the sole factor in renewal and cancellation decisions.

In addition to presenting the issues, Bucknell provides possible solutions for each potential problem. For example, the challenge of obtaining statistics across different platforms can perhaps be solved with a collection of a range of usage figures instead of a singular number. The issue of different subject disciplines having different research needs (research suggests science researchers look at more articles, but researchers in the humanities study individual articles for a longer period of time) can be solved by weighting usage statistics according to subject area. Additionally, the author provides a case study of how to review and analyze statistical information while keeping these issues at the forefront. J. Kolendo

Bulut, B., Ugur, H., Gürdal, G., Holt, T., Çukadar, S., Akbayrak, E. H., & Çelebi, M. K. (2013). ANKOS publisher application system and its impact on the e-resource evaluation process. Serials Review, 39(1), 29-36. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2013.01.002

Calvert, K. (2013). Starting from scratch on perpetual access. Serials Librarian, 65(1), 69-73. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.800464

Canepi, K., & Imre, A. (2010). Not just drifting: Checking online serial issue availability. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 157-166. doi: 10.1080/03615261003622973
This article addresses automated verification for online serial accessibility. The librarians at Southern Illinois University Carbondale conducted a study (2009) to investigate current practices for efficient online journal access. ONline Information eXchange (ONIX) for Serials and Serials Release Notification (SRN) are discussed as effective automated methods for checking access. This article is useful for librarians who are responsible for checking online journal access. M. Nelson

Carpenter, T. (2010). Electronic resource management standardization─Still a mixed bag. Against the Grain, 22(4), 84-85.
This article discusses the three aspects of electronic resource management (ERM): standards, systems, and subscriptions. The author highlights problems associated with ERM. Such problems include product selection, costs, licensing, and technical support. Standards for ERM are also outlined. This article provides insight for librarians who participate in the decision making process for acquiring digital resources. M. Nelson

Caudwell, J. (2013). An A-Z of RDSs. Serials Librarian, 65(1), 1-24. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.798849

Clendenning, L. F., Duggan, L., & Smith, K. (2010). Navigating a course for serials staffing into the new millennium. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 224-231. doi:10.1080/03615261003625893
The authors describe the reorganization of staffing and workflow for serials acquisitions and electronic resources at Indiana University Bloomington Libraries. Various factors motivated the reorganization: the previous “silo” structure of separate departments was inefficient; an acquisitions trend away from print to electronic resources meant more time and staffing had to be allocated to the electronic resources; library users expect more access to electronic resources, which again means more staffing and workload for electronic rather than print acquisitions. The library brought in an outside consulting firm to analyze the departments and make recommendations. The consultants recommended the implementation of an electronic resource management (ERM) system as well as a consolidation of workflow and responsibilities into a single library unit, Serials and Electronic Acquisitions (SERA). Consolidating into one department meant cross-training staff and expanding individuals’ skill sets, which in turn meant upgrading some staff positions. The authors do note that the change from a silo to a combined structure is an ongoing challenge; in fact, organizational changes like that can spark worries among staff about possible layoffs. Overall, however, staff have responded well to the reorganization, which brings with it new opportunities, such as the increased affordances of working with an ERM system and the possibility of SERA playing a role in the university digital repository. Because of its emphasis on electronic resources, this article will be of interest to distance librarians. R. Miller

Collins, M. (2010). Partnering for innovation: Interviews with OCLC and Kuali OLE. Serials Review, 36(2), 93-101. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2010.03.001
Collins interviewed directors of OCLC’s Web-scale Management Services (WMS) and Kuali Open Library Environment (OLE) to present a profile of the two systems. OCLC WMS and Kuali OLE are options for libraries seeking to expand a local collection development process into a collaborative, integrated library system that shares data with other libraries. Collins’ interview questions elicit helpful overviews of the two systems, including the systems’ general purpose and uses, target customer base, and skills that librarians need in order to run the systems. Collins also provides a useful introduction to the emerging trend of collaborative integrated library systems. Distance librarians working in the areas of access, collection-development, and IT will find this article useful. R. Miller

Collins, M., & Grogg, J. E. (2011). Building a better ERMS. Library Journal, 136(4), 22-28.
The authors surveyed academic librarians and vendors to determine priorities in electronic resource management systems (ERMS). Librarians identified the following critical functionalities in an ERMS: 1) workflow management; 2) license management; 3) statistics management; 4) administrative information storage; 5) acquisitions functionality; 6) interoperability. The authors summarize the results of their study according to each of those categories, noting in the end that interoperability–enabling an ERMS to function across systems–may well affect all of the other categories. Librarians spoke of the “closed-box” nature of many ERMS, making transfer of data, for example, from an interlibrary loan system into an ERMS problematic. The authors discuss emerging systems that seek to address shortcomings in present ERMS and call for greater involvement by frontline ERM librarians in the process of developing new systems. A chart comparing commercial and open-source ERMS is provided. R. Miller

Dahl, C. (2012). Primed for patron-driven acquisition: A look at the big picture. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(2), 119-126. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.684557
After a literature review of the 2009-2011 on background and implementation issues, Dahl gives an overview of the issues surrounding patron-driven acquisitions (PDA). The rise in the adoption of PDA occurs at the same time that shifting understandings about the purpose of libraries, collections and their value, and the role of expert librarians in selection are occurring. Libraries are becoming active student earning spaces and less book warehouses.  Collections are seen as what patrons can discover and access through the library, not as physical volumes. In an environment where collections are valued by number of circulations, books purchased through PDA have higher circulation than non-PDA, librarian selected purchases. Expert selected books, using limited resources, allow for purchasing only a small amount of the scholarly output. Use of PDA would free up time for librarians for other priorities. PDA elicits many questions including maintaining control over the collection and expenditure of limited funds. Various levels of control can be built into the PDA program including setting parameters for what is in the catalogue, setting number of clicks to trigger purchase, mediating purchases and other methods. Due to the limited amount of materials multiple methods need to be used in collecting monographs. Additionally librarians need to be involved in shaping the PDA program. The purpose of library collections is evolving from preservation of information and timelessness to providing greater access and ensuring use. B. Avery

Davis, S., Malinowski, T., Davis, E., MacIver, D., Currado, T., & Spagnolo, L. (2012). Who ya gonna call? Troubleshooting strategies for e-resources access problems. The Serials Librarian, 62(1-4), 24-32. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2012.652459
This article discuss various general aspects of e-resource access troubleshooting, including the pros and cons of e-journal access, e-journal activation issues, proxy server and OpenURL problems, access restrictions, and general practices. Each topic is covered by an expert in the area ranging from academic librarian to sales executive, technical support manager, and account services manager. The article concludes by stressing the importance of teamwork within the library to alleviate these issues and to have backup personnel in each area to prevent a “single point of failure.” This article is well-suited for those looking for a basic overview of e-resource access problems. D. McKay

Debonis, R., O’Donnell, E., &Thomes, C. (2012). (Self-) discovery service: Helping students help themselves. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 235-250. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705648
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, academic libraries began to experiment with federated search tools, but over time, found them to be unsatisfactory. In recent years there has been a “make-over” of the federated search engine in the form of discovery tools offered by a number of ILS providers such as Ebsco, OCLC, and ProQuest, just to name a few. There are also some open-source products. Librarians seem to be moving more and more in this direction as the traditional ILS appears to be inadequate for the level of discovery and delivery that users expect. Many libraries have already committed to a particular discovery tool and many others are on the verge of doing so.
In 2011, librarians at the University of Maryland chose to implement the Ebsco Discovery Service (EDS). The goal was two-fold: to provide a simple interface that would “be as intuitive as possible” and to simultaneously “protect [users] from information overload.” In this article, the authors discuss their findings following the implementation of the (EDS. Librarians assessed EDS both through online classroom use and also through reference interview protocol. In both cases, the assessment revealed that, before students can utilize the EDS effectively in meeting their information needs, they need to determine if in fact the EDS is the best place to begin. Students choose resources based on their “familiarity with particular resources or their perception that a particular resource was ‘easy to use.’” C. Caretto

Emery, J., & Stone, G. (2013). Looking forward. Library Technology Reports, 49(2), 39-43.

England, D. (2013). We have our ERM system, it’s implemented: Why am I still going here and there to get the information I need? Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 111-117. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.760148

Gelber, N. (2013). Five years of empirical research in the area of technical services: An examination of selected peer-reviewed journals, 2007-2011. Technical Services Quarterly, 30(2), 166-186. doi:10.1080/07317131.2013.759825

Gustafson-Sundell, N. (2011). Think locally: A prudent approach to electronic resource management systems. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 23(2), 126-141. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2011.576955
Distance librarians asked to serve on their library’s electronic resources management system (ERMS) task force can use Northwestern University Library’s (NUL) prep work as background reading to avoid the unnecessary task of “reinventing the wheel.” Opining that “local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail,” Gustafson-Sundell’s article offers a summary of NUL’s experience with researching ERMS. Appropriately characterizing their approach as “prudent,” the author mentions a 2004/2005 investigative conclusion that then-available products did not yet meet their needs. A 2009 follow-up convinced them that advances in the intervening years were sufficient to proceed, and that is when the search (and the article) took off. The article, beginning with an extensive literature review, considers the development and analysis of a short list of products and concludes by saying that NUL has made satisfactory progress toward positioning themselves to begin the implementation of an ERM should the change become desirable. C. Blevens

Han, N. (2012). Managing a 21st-century library collection. The Serials Librarian, 63(2), 158-169. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2012.700781 
Han thoroughly summarizes the keynote given by Matt Goldner, OCLC Product & Technology Advocate, at the MidSouth eResources Symposium in 2011.  After setting the stage with a discussion of trends in e-books, Goldner’s main focus was on solutions.  He presented evidence on the impact of the e-revolution on academic libraries in particular.  An OCLC survey identified the areas of concern to be licensing, the future of higher education, facilities issues, and the visibility of library collections. He then discussed 1) the benefits of switching to e-format, include quick and remote access, ease of discovery, and the amount of content available especially when libraries are embedded in Google Scholar; 2) the issues librarians are having with the e-revolution, including students’ preferences to start their research with search engines and Wikipedia with the library site entering in later in the process. When students get to the library site, they expect a Google experience, creating website design issues for libraries. Additionally there are workflow and licensing issues for librarians; and 3) what librarians should be focusing on how to best serve their patrons including getting into the user’s workflow for searching and social media,  working with publishers to develop better and more consistent purchasing options, developing a well-maintained knowledge base  to provide access to all the publisher changes in title access,  developing resources sharing models by being able to identify who subscribes to which packages, working with ILS vendors to develop  a unified workflow not built on separate pieces,  developing better interlibrary loan,  improving rights practices for sharing and course reserves, and working with lawmakers on copyright issues. He concluded by urging librarians to engage and work with different players from the user, to the content providers, to system providers. B. Avery

Hartnett, E., Beh, E., Resnick, T., Ugaz, A., & Tabacaru, S. (2013). Charting a course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries’ experience implementing an open-source electronic resources management system. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 25(1), 16-38. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2013.760402

Imre, A., Hartnett, E., & Hiatt, C. D. (2013). CORAL: Implementing an open-source ERM system. Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 224-234. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.760414

Jensen, K. (2013). Managing library electronic resources using Google sites. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 25(2), 115-123. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2013.785289

Joshipura, S., & Redman, B. J. (2012). Biz of Acq — Navigating a collaborative ERMS trail from planning to implementation at ASU Libraries. Against the Grain, 24(1), 46-48.
Distance librarians who work in a complex environment characterized by high FTE and multiple campus libraries would do well to read the Joshipura and Redman article on Arizona State University’s (ASU) implementation of an electronic resources management system (ERMS). The authors provide a personal experience focus that features their challenge of coordinating four campuses, each with a separate director, unique collection development decisions, licensing agreements, and access to electronic resources. As a result of an outside consultant’s recommendation to consolidate the selection and access of e-resources and an ERMS, a task group oversaw the implementation of Innovative Interface’s product. Seven subgroups, whose tasks are briefly described, handled workflow, coding, public access, web form, marketing, staff training, and timelines for populating the ERMS. Employing a best practice of never underestimating or stinting on the planning time before launching the product, ASU library staff describe fourteen months spent on planning the implementation and six months spent on populating the data before releasing it to library staff and users. Future plans include improving the public interface and eBook management. C. Blevens

Kandpal, K. N., Rawat, S. S., & Vithal, K. S. R. (2013). Use of e-resources by undergraduate students of NTR College of Veterinary Science. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 33(5), 394-398. doi:10.14429/djlit.33.5104

Kerr, S. (2010). Electronic resource management systems: The promise and disappointment. A report of the program presented by the ALCTS Continuing Resources Section, Acquisitions Committee, American Library Association Annual Conference, Chicago, July 2009. Technical Services Quarterly, 27(3), 297-300. doi:10.1080/07317131003766199
The Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) held a program to discuss the success and challenges involved when a library implements an electronic resource managment (ERM) system. Kerr summarizes the program, which featured presentations by four librarians with ERM system experience. The librarians discussed the pros and cons of specific vendors’ systems; such a candid review may prove helpful to libraries shopping for an ERM system. The program speakers covered other important considerations as well, such as the decision-making process that goes into purchasing an ERM system and the preparations and adjustments needed to successfully implement a system. Acquisitions and systems librarians whose institutions are considering an ERM system will benefit from this summary of the ALCTS program. R. Miller

Khater, P., & Appleton, B. (2010). Using a local electronic resource management system to manage e-journals: Can it get any better than this? Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 250-256. doi:10.1080/03615261003626016
This recorded session presents a locally-developed system by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries for managing electronic resources. Khater stresses the importance of evaluating the needs of an institution and its patron base when determining the development and maintenance of system.  Factors such as number of institutions, population demographics, and volume and types of collections are identified as key considerations when optimizing a system for both workflow functionality and user convenience. Benefits of the homegrown system include having a system custom tailored to the organizational need, while drawbacks are identified as the requirement of more time by staff for upkeep and the reduction of staff available for other projects. Recommendations on how to approach future development are addressed as dependent upon factors unique to an institution. R. Cassidy

Kingan, R. (2010). Electronic Resource Management Systems: Manage online library spend and increase the value of the library. Legal Information Management, 10(4), 271-274. doi:10.1017/S1472669610000927
Author Rory Kingan describes how law librarians can develop electronic resource management (ERM) software systems as tools for usage monitoring of online subscription services, automatic logons and access password controls, and cost recoveries (i.e., monitor or cancel any online services that are seldom used). Through the use of assigned client numbers, some ERM systems can record any vendor costs or fees incurred during research, and can also prevent users from linking to an out-of-contract database. Kingan, Chief Technology Officer at Priory Solutions, presented this paper at the British and Irish Association of Law Librarians Conference in June 2010. At Priory Solutions, he is responsible for Research Monitor, an ERM product that is used primarily by law firms. L. Jefferson

Klusendorf, H. (2010). Measure for measure: Librarians want a more effective ERM, Results from ERM Systems Usage Trends Survey. Against the Grain, 22(2), 34-40.
Author Heather Klusendorf analyzes the data collected from over 260 librarians who responded to the ERM (e-resource management) Systems Usage Trends Survey. The survey results reveal how librarians rate specific ERM system features that are utilized to improve management of e-book and e-journal collections, workflows, orders and budget information, license terms and conditions, and online databases. While most librarians find the implementation of ERM systems satisfactory, the consensus among them is that ERM systems need improvement and can be too demanding on staff time. Klusendorf concludes that, as e-resources become increasingly important to libraries, vendors need to improve the ERM systems so that this product will become a more effective e-resource collection development tool. L. Jefferson

Koehn, S. L., & Hawamdeh, S. (2010). The acquisition and management of electronic resources: Can use justify cost? Library Quarterly, 80(2), 161-174.
As electronic resources increasingly require a license to access (in contrast to the traditional pay-for-ownership model) and as the demand of such collections continues to grow, public libraries face challenges in balancing the needs of patrons within the limits of budgets, policies, and vendor contracts. This article explores a case study by the Tulsa City-County Library in which usage statistics and additional selection criteria, such as resource depth of coverage and ease of use, are highlighted as essential to the acquisition process. By examining various factors over a predetermined time period, the study models one possible method for determining justification for acquisition and cost valuation of resources. The authors stress that anomalies such as decreasing cost-per-search should serve as considerations for continued coverage but should not act as the only element in the selection process. R. Cassidy

Kornblau, A.I., Strudwick, J. & Miller, W. (2012). How web-scale discovery changes the conversation: The questions librarians should ask themselves. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 19(2-4), 144-162. doi: 10.1080/10691316.2012.693443
The authors discuss important considerations in choosing and implementing a discovery service based on their experience with Summon at Florida Atlantic University Libraries. The article includes questions for vendors about discovery systems’ specific capabilities, recommendations for which departments in the library should be involved in choosing a system, and potential interoperability problems. There are also suggestions about customization, marketing, and assessment once a discovery system is in place. This article is worth reading for librarians investigating new discovery tools or interested in assessing their current system. K. Conerton

Krusmark, K., Throumoulos, M., & Romaine, S. (2010). Registration ruminations: Do your end users have access to everything you’ve paid for? Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 240-243. doi:10.1080/03615261003625943
This session confronts the challenges associated with managing e-journals (i.e., registration, activation, lack of staff, update tracking, license details, and electronic resource management (ERM) system data population). Mary Throumoulos from Rollins College Library provides an overview of her workflow organization and the tools used to complete “e” registration. Audience members express similar encounters with the process and the presenters noted usage as a key factor in retention decisions. The Shared Electronic Resource Understanding (SERU) and a National Information Standards Organization (NISO) registration are two initiatives working to simplify and streamline the process between publishers and agents. L. Poelvoorde

Kuehl, J., Holley, B., Grogg, J., & Davis, S. (2010). ER options for acquisitions: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 188-192. doi:10.1080/03615261003625745
In this article, Davis reports on a panel presentation by Kuehl, Holley, and Grogg, who discussed the challenges of managing electronic resources and the role that a subscription agent can play in the process. Kuehl is a subscription agent for EBSCO Information Services, and she described the services an agent provides, including alerts to library users, providing information on price changes and open access titles, and assisting with registration and licensing. Holley spoke from an acquisitions librarian’s viewpoint: at the University of Alabama, Holley has found the services of a subscription agent to be very helpful in managing the complexities of electronic serials acquisitions. Holley did note some disadvantages of using an agent, for example, the cost, which is often questioned by library administration. Grogg, who manages e-resources at the University of Alabama, spoke of agents as “metamediaries,” a single contact-point when dealing with a large system (such as EBSCO). This article will be of interest to distance librarians who increasingly find themselves dealing with the challenges of acquiring e-resources and making them available to library users. R. Miller

Lamothe, A. R. (2012). Comparing usage patterns recorded between an electronic reference and an electronic monograph collection: The differences in searches and full-text content viewings. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(2), 101-118. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.684333
In this article, Lamothe analyzed online usage of electronic reference and electronic monograph collections at the J.N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University from 2002 to 2010. The author specifically focused on two electronic reference collections, Virtual Reference Library and Oxford Digital Reference Shelf, and two electronic monograph collections, NetLibrary and Springer. These two types of collections were compared in order to observe usage patterns. Lamothe also discussed the history of e-books at the library, describing the shift from obtaining only aggregated packages from the NetLibrary platform (where usage was low), a consequent shift to individual title purchases, and then a hybrid purchasing of both aggregated as well as individual e-monographs.  Lamothe considered how and why electronic reference books and electronic monographs are used by patrons. One possible reason proposed for the high use of electronic reference books is that they can be easily and quickly used to locate information.

A number of relationships were measured using ratios and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Of specific focus was the coefficient calculated to measure the relationship between collection size and its use, which had a a strong correlation.However, it appears that the smaller e-reference collection exhibited greater use than e-monographs as proportional to size. There were also strong correlations between searches and e-books, viewing and e-books, as well as viewing and searches. Additionally, statistics showed that a greater portion of the reference collection tends to be used by patrons, with between 80 percent to 100 percent of e-reference collections being used by patrons as compared to only 10 percent to 11 percent of e-monographs. Overall, e-reference use has been consistently high and growth has been constant. On the other hand, e-monographs were slow to increase in usage and searches or viewings, and they displayed diverse growth rates. J. Kolendo

Leffler, J. J., & Zuniga, H. A. (2010). Development and use of license forms for libraries with and without electronic resource management systems. Technical Services Quarterly, 27(3), 279-288. doi:10.1080/07317131003765977
Properly understanding and recording electronic resource license information is challenging and time consuming. The Electronic Resources Librarian at the University of Northern Colorado developed a form to streamline and standardize the process of entering data into the Electronic Resources Management (ERM) system. The information recorded on such forms is useful to any library that maintains electronic resource license agreements, with or without ERM systems. Identifying product coverage in the license, keeping track of renewal dates, and the permission to download and integrate electronic resources are a few of the potential applications for non-ERM libraries. L. Poelvoorde

Levy, F., Pyles, R., Szarejko, C., & Wyatt, L. (2012). Developing an electronic repository for undergraduate theses. Honors in Practice, 8, 135-146.
Although electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) have been published by universities and indexed by academic libraries since the late 1990s, focus on undergraduate capstone or thesis projects has remained low. This trend-setting case study examines the steps taken by librarians at the East Tennessee State University to develop a repository for these undergraduate works. Initially two assessments were conducted to examine the feasibility of this project. The first surveyed librarians and staff at 17 peer institutions and 8 non-peer institutions for their practices regarding the electronic publication of undergraduate theses. Despite the universal availability of the projects (100% surveyed provided physical access to the works to the public) among both peer and non-peer institutions, most institutions did not provide electronic access either through a repository or through a library online catalog. The second assessment examined potential systems that might be employed as an institutional repository for undergraduate works. The assessment included an examination of the open source software solutions DSpace and Eprints, as well as the proprietary systems Content Pro, Digitool, and Digital Commons. Although bepress’ Digital Commons was their first choice, Eprints was chosen as the first step in their project with the hope that funds for the bepress system would be raised in due time. The first few years of the project resulted in the development of important submission workflows, tutorials and intellectual property policies based on Duke University. Important future directions included examining the actual impact that access to undergraduate theses would have on student learning outcomes. This article provides a necessary analysis of the intellectual value that undergraduate papers can add to a college or university. A. Weiss

Li, J., Robertson, J. C., Wright, A. L., & Britton, R. M. (2012). E-book management: A multiple access points approach. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 9(2), 103-113. doi:10.1080/15424065.2012.680344
The authors discuss the challenges that University of South Alabama Baugh Biomedical Library staff faced in trying to simplify e-book searching and provide access to its growing e-book collections. The difficulty in providing access stems from the fact that no single tool currently exists that can perform highly effective cross-platform searches. Baugh Biomedical Library obtains clinical e-books from five vendors: MD Consult, AccessMedicine, OVID, STAT!Ref and R2 Digital Library, and although each provides excellent content, locating the content is problematic.

Since there was no singular solution for providing access to all of their e-books, the authors hold that the best way to currently provide access to their e-book collections is through a multiple search option approach in which the shortcomings of one tool will be compensated by another’s strengths. In this article, the authors describe the different approaches used in providing access, which include the online catalog, ERM, Worldcat Local Quickstart, a federated search engine, and homegrown alphabetical and subject lists. Each approach does present drawbacks; for instance, the online catalog is unable to search via full-text or chapter title words, and the ERM-Serials Solutions 360 Core can perform basic “title begins with” or “title contain all words” searches but it cannot search e-book content. However, at this time the multiple access point approach appears to be working, and since the addition of the several access points e-book search page, usage has increased. J. Kolendo

Mapulanga, P. (2012). Impact of the optic fibre network and increased bandwidth on e-resources access in Malawi. OCLC Systems & Services, 28(4), 221-234. doi:10.1108/10650751211279157
To understand the impact of Malawi’s fiber-optic network and increased bandwidth on e-resource access between the years of 2006 and 2012, this study seeks to: 1) determine bandwidth levels for libraries in Malawi pre- and post-installation of a fiber-optic network; 2) understand user trends in Malawi’s libraries; 3) explore the challenges facing Malawi to provide access to e-resources; and 4) ascertain the appropriate strategies to combat the challenges the country faces in providing e-resources. The study provides much information concerning pricing and information transmission rates. The focus here is on Malawi, but similar self-analysis would be relevant to almost every educational institution. This article would be helpful to library administrators, systems librarians and those involved in e-resources. D. McKay

Massie, D. (2012). Interlending trending: A look ahead from atop the data pile. Interlending & Document Supply, 40(2), 125-130. doi:10.1108/02641611211239623
In this paper, Dennis Massie analyzes the five forces he sees affecting the future of interlibrary loan and document delivery services. Due to the increase in usage of interlibrary loan services over the past ten years by the Association of Research Libraries, the factors, or forces as Massie calls them, impacting those services have increased in breadth and depth. Massie identifies those forces as transitioning from print to electronic collections, managing legacy print collections, measuring the implications of mass digitization projects, weighing the competition and managing copyright issues. Massie analyzes each of these forces carefully, examining the scenarios each force presents.  He highlights the value of print collections while identifying the costs and threats involved in managing large collections that have low usage. He looks favorably on competition for libraries as motivating them to do better, but recognizes that competitors are often out to replace what libraries do. He identifies the challenges orphan works, which are those items where determining the copyright status is difficult, present, but also motivates librarians to “push the envelope” when it comes to copyright issues and access.  M. Venner

McCracken, P., & Womack, K. (2010). KBART: Improving access to electronic resources through better linking. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 232-239. doi:10.1080/03615261003625927
This article summarizes McCracken and Womack’s presentation at the 24th annual North American Serials Interest Group (NASIG) conference held in Asheville, North Carolina, June 3-7, 2009. It describes the progress of the KBART (Knowledge Bases and Related Tools) project, which seeks to establish best practices for content providers, aggregators, electronic resource management (ERM) system vendors, and libraries to improve library patrons’ access to electronic resources. In addition to briefly reviewing OpenURL and the KBART project, the article identifies the working group’s concerns about the current use of OpenURL and proposed solutions to those problems. It then describes the project’s deliverables, including a report that will present best practice recommendations on what type of data to provide and how to deliver it. McCracken and Womack present the fifteen metadata fields that the report will recommend be delivered. The authors also identify issues for future discussion. B. Smith

McQuillan, B., Fattig, K., Kemp, R., Stamison, C., & England, D. (2010). Electronic resource management system integration strategies: Opportunity, challenge or promise? Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 106-116. doi:10.1080/03615261003622734
Over the last several years, there has been a significant shift in serials subscriptions from print to electronic resources, making the implementation of electronic resource management (ERM) systems a priority for academic libraries. This article summarizes a panel discussion on ERM system implementation, in which librarians and ERM vendors shared their experiences setting up ERM systems, and discussed issues with licensing and budget strategies for print versus electronic resources, changes in library workflows related to ERM system implementation, and the gathering and interpretation of usage statistics. The article concludes with the panelists’ discussion of the future of ERM systems. P. Johnson

Mi, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). Implementation and application of CORAL: An open source ERM system. Collection Management, 38(1), 75-79. doi:10.1080/01462679.2012.730493

Moeller, P. D. (2013). Literature of acquisitions in review, 2010-11. Library Resources & Technical Services, 57(2), 87-99. 

Noh, Y. (2012). A study measuring the performance of electronic resources in academic libraries. Aslib Proceedings, 64(2), 134-153. doi:10.1108/00012531211215169
Noh delves into measuring performance of electronic resources as well as argues that electronic resources should be weighed more in library evaluation in order to improve the reliability and accuracy of library evaluation overall. In Korea on average, according to this study, libraries spent around 50 percent of their budgets on e-resources, and the author argues that the evaluation of e-resources should be raised to a corresponding level. The article also re-introduces evaluation criteria (created in an earlier study by Noh, 2010) and finalized after it was approved by a Delphi survey. Noh uses the criteria to evaluate e-resources efficiency by surveying Korean university libraries, providing an input-output analysis of electronic resources in academic libraries.

Input and output is clearly defined in the study. Calculated by percentage, the input-output ratio revealed that the efficiency of e-resources of Korean academic libraries reached 88.20 percent, which is not very high as, statistically speaking, input-output must exceed 100 percent to show high efficiency.

Additionally, three questions guided the author’s study, all of which are answered in the article: First, will the ratio of e-resources in the library’s overall budget be 40 percent or more? The answer is affirmative, as the e-resources budget on average is 50 percent of the total library budget. Second, will calculating the overall score of each academic library and each sector’s score be useful in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each library? As evaluation indicators of e-resources were clearly divided, marked, and rated that is also answered in the affirmative. Third, can each academic library show 100 percent efficiency in the evaluation of electronic resources? The answer was negative, as efficiency did not exceed 100 percent. J. Kolendo

OCLC E-resource advisory council continues work. (2013). Advanced Technology Libraries, 42(10), 9-10. 

Pesch, O. (2010). Re-inventing the ERM: EBSCO takes a new approach to e-resources management with the release of ERM Essentials. Against the Grain, 22(2), 32-34.
Oliver Pesch, Chief Strategist, E-Resources, for EBSCO Information Services, discusses the Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) report that recommended functional specifications for electronic resource management (ERM) systems. The author summarizes survey responses gathered from EBSCO customers regarding their views on the challenges of electronic resource management. Pesch outlines how EBSCO’s product ERM Essentials addresses these issues, for example, licensing, subscription management, holdings updates, and statistical analysis, and helps libraries save significant staff time and money managing electronic resources. P. Johnson

Ratto, B.G., & Lynch, A. (2012). The embedded textbook: Collaborating with faculty to employ library subscription e-books as core course text. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(1), 1-16. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.656070
The three purposes of this article are: 1) to introduce a study that measured student perceptions of a library-owned e-textbook option compared to both a traditional textbook only option and a combination e-book and textbook option; 2) to provide an outline for others to replicate a similar textbook alternative; and 3) to illustrate the “positive impact” on student learning that library and teaching faculty collaboration can achieve. The article contains background information, a literature review, the study’s timeline, six tables, a large appendix containing a concise, bulleted timeline and the surveys that the authors used. The authors conclude that the admittedly small study at Southern New Hampshire University indicates that students are willing to rely on e-books as the primary text for core course content. This article is insightful for those seeking to employ e-books in place of traditional textbooks and for those involved in acquiring and providing access to digital resources. D. McKay

Regolini, A., Gentilini, E., Baligand, M., & Jannès-Ober, E. (2013). “Sustainable management” of commercial electronic research resources and of its use in bibliometrics. Library Management, 34(1), 31-39. doi:10.1108/01435121311298252

Ruttenberg, C. (2013). Finding the tool that fits best: Cloud based task management for electronic resources. OCLC Systems and Services, 29(3), 151-160. doi:10.1108/OCLC-10-2012-0040

Rux, E., & Borchert, T. (2010). You have HOW MANY spreadsheets? Rethinking electronic resource management. Computers In Libraries, 30(8), 21-25.
There is an explosion of electronic resources that need to be managed by libraries as well as their interconnectedness to print resources. This causes several issues for librarians involved in various aspects of these materials. The authors discuss the steps and processes used to incorporate an electronic resource management (ERM) system at their library. They did the entire process in less than one calendar year. The library, after consideration of the pros/cons, expenses of various systems, and their own workflow, decided to use Zoho Creater ( as their ERM system. The Zoho database is a tool to organize information about various resources in one place, add, modify, and delete information in real time, enable on-going customization, and provide easy access to data for routines, tasks, and reports. Although Zoho is user-friendly and easy to adapt and implement, the authors discuss some of the challenges associated with this ERM system. One issue still under investigation is the backup of the data on the Zoho servers. However, the authors do indicate they feel secure because of routine server maintenance provided by Zoho. This system allowed the library to gain control of the overwhelming task of managing electronic resources. The benefit for distance students is the streamlined approach they will see when searching for electronic holdings the library provides. T. Garrett

Ryan, C. E., Nelson, R., & Brown, L. A. (2010). Online serials access X-game: Surviving a vendor change for online serials access and thriving! Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 204-214. doi:10.1080/03615261003625794
This article provides practical and helpful suggestions for how to select and implement a new Electronic Access Management Service. The authors walk the reader through the process that occurred over eight months at their own library, from the reasons that motivated the library to change vendors, through the decision making process, training, and implementation. The authors highlight potential pitfalls and positive experiences during the selection process. The article also includes questions for vendors, clients, and possible administrative scenarios in the Appendix. The article will be useful for distance librarians who also manage electronic resources. E. Leonard

Silton, K., & LeMaistre, T. (2011). Innovative Interfaces’ Electronic Resources Management System: A survey on the state of implementation and usage. Serials Review, 37(2), 80-86. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2011.01.002
This 2009 study reviewed librarians’ experiences with implementation and use of Innovative Interfaces’ (III) Electronic Resources Management System (ERMS). The study was developed to ascertain if the difficulties reported in published case studies were representative of many III ERM users, especially if such implementations might not be completed or are extremely difficult to complete, and how workflow was affected. The authors gathered data from 61 academic, special, and corporate libraries on the satisfaction of their own implementations, impact on patrons, and impact on workflow. Results confirmed case study reports that III’s ERMS was difficult or impossible to complete even though it improved workflow and improved patron access. The article will be useful for distance librarians who also manage electronic resources. E. Leonard

Stachokas, G. (2010). Implementing the 360 Suite at Indiana State University. Against the Grain, 22(2), 30-32.
This article discusses the implementation process of the Serials Solution 360 Suite at Indiana State University. Serial Solution’s 360 suite is an electronic resource management system (ERM) enabling librarians to streamline electronic products for patron usage and for staff to manage them in an efficient manner. The 360 ERM has four parts: 360 Core, which provides access to KnowledgeWorks; 360 Link, which is the link resolver; 360 Counter, a tool for the retrieval, storage, and manipulation of usage statistics; and 360 MARC Updates, which is used to update bibliographic records in the library’s ILS. In the discussions, the author elaborates on issues that arose and how they were addressed for patrons and library staff. The author discusses some of the workarounds that had to be created for both the patron-side and the library staff-side of the ERM and simply contacting Serials Solution for tech support. A system like this provides easy access to support distance learning. The portal allows the library to streamline electronic resources for patron needs and usage, as well as point patrons to print resources. Today’s students will not spend hours conducting research; they would rather just “Google” it. This will improve their ability to find specific content they need more efficiently and effectively. T. Garrett

Staines, H. (2010). How can publishers better support ERMs? Against the Grain, 22(2), 26-28.
In considering publisher support for electronic resource management systems (ERMs), the author assesses the needs of libraries and asks whether customers’ needs are being met by publishers and vendors. Communication is the important factor between these key players to make the use of ERMs successful in libraries. Simplifying acquisition, licensing, and creating a standard for access and linking of metadata are important in bridging the gap between vendors, publishers, and libraries. The ability for libraries to store and update publisher information when it is constantly changing is one suggestion. Publishers and vendors should provide consistent access and technical support, with human contact, along with package reviews and possibly an automated renewal process. While these issues have seen improvement since 2010, the ERMs being used are still considered first generation and still cause technical issues. The only way that publishers can support ERMs is by open communication with vendors and libraries. D. Moench

Stewart, C. (2011). Metrics: Keeping track of it all: The challenge of measuring digital resource usage. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(2), 174-176. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2011.01.002
Stewart describes the evolution and current state of some of the key methods to measure access and use of electronic resources. The article highlights the various quantitative tools, from the development of the OpenURL framework and link resolvers to the widespread adoption of the SUSHI (Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative) protocol and the COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) standards. Although third party providers and integrated library systems offer tools to measure the use of digital resources, they are costly, so most libraries currently rely on vendor-supplied data. To complement quantitative data, web-based surveys, such as ACRL’s MINES (Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Services) project, can provide more descriptive information about how online resources and services are used. Using both quantitative and qualitative tools to obtain a more complete framework for analyzing e-resource usage will enable more informed collection development decisions. B. Smith

Taylor, D., Dodd, F., & Murphy, J. (2010). Open-source Electronic Resource Management System: A collaborative implementation. Serials Librarian, 58(1-4), 61-72. doi:10.1080/03615261003623039
This article details the processes and collaboration necessary to implement a new electronic resources management system shared between several regional post-secondary libraries. As part of a suite of library discovery tools, the open-source ERM system offers centralized licensing data. Positive changes at Simon Fraser University (SFU) include the standardization of electronic resources records which streamline employee workflow by reducing the amount of printed forms. A major benefit for the public is more reliable searches across three interfaces: catalog, e-journals list, and databases. Challenges for SFU include synchronizing disparate data and the maintenance of virtual linking between Millennium bibliographic records and the ERM system. The implementation at University of Prince Edwards Island has led to more accessible and accurate financial information and improved availability of licensing information on the use of articles in electronic reserves and course packs. Future improvements for the ERM system include a change audit system to provide new record alerts and the ability to upload usage statistics. Libraries interested in the possibilities of collaborative uses of open-source technology for resource management will benefit from this article. D. Greenfield

Timm, D. F. (2012). STAT!Ref: An online source of health care reference materials. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 9(3), 214-222. doi:10.1080/15424065.2012.707845
STAT!Ref is an online health library that was started in 1987 by Dr. Richard Sugden, who perceived a need for quick access to health information. This article describes STAT!Ref as of mid-2012, when it offered over 300 resources in 50 disciplines, including internal medicine, nursing, and allied health. STAT!Ref aggregates full-text books, point-of-care tools, evidence-based materials and more from a variety of publishers and other sources. The author surveys the components of STAT!Ref in detail and leads the reader through the various functions. These include alphabetical browsing by title, filtered browsing by discipline, basic and advanced searching, and navigating through search results. Subscribers can be individuals or institutions and titles are chosen a la carte. Subscription prices depend on the titles and components selected. STAT!Ref includes several value-added resources with each subscription at no extra cost. These include Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, MedCalc 3000 (a collection of more than 400 clinical calculators, criteria sets, and decision trees), and automated searches of PubMed and the National Guidelines Clearing House that display whenever pertinent results are available for the search performed. Mobile apps are available on several platforms for point-of-care and distance education use. This article provides a thorough review of the content, features and functionality of STAT!Ref, though a few specifics may have changed since its publication.  M. Heyd

Tosaka, Y., Weng, C., & Beh, E. (2013). Exercising creativity to implement an institutional repository with limited resources. Serials Librarian, 64(1-4), 254-262. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2013.761066

Tripathi, M., & Jeevan, V. K. J. (2013). A selective review of research on e-resource usage in academic libraries. Library Review, 62(3), 134-156. doi:10.1108/00242531311329473

Tripathi, M., Kumar, S., & Jeevan, V. K. J. (2012). Understanding utilization of E-journals through usage reports from aggregators in a distance education university. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24(1), 22-42. doi:10.1080/1941126X.2012.657103
This quantitative, explanatory research study was undertaken to address the concerns of educational administrators at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) about the return on investment of electronic resources. The authors of the study examined usage of ProQuest, EBSCO, JSTOR, and Project MUSE databases at IGNOU in 2008. Publisher-provided, COUNTER 3.0-compliant reports were used as secondary data in this study. The data was used to identify user browsing and search patterns, and format preferences for activities such as downloading and printing. Most frequently used e-journals in database collections were also identified. As a result of this research, the authors urge librarians to be sure that they understand vendor-provided reports before drawing conclusions, and they recommend that librarians not rely solely on cost per download to make e-resource retention decisions. They advise also considering uniqueness of database content, faculty research interests, the number of students and faculty in each discipline, and the impact of patrons’ research disciplines on their access behaviors. C. Barboza

Vasileiou, M., Rowley, J., & Hartley, R. (2012). The e-book management framework: The management of e-books in academic libraries and its challenges. Library & Information Science Research, 34(4), 282-291. doi:10:1016/j.lisr.2012.06.005
This article proposes a framework for the management of e-book collections in academic libraries by attempting to answer four questions: 1) What are the distinct and significant stages in the e-book management process in academic libraries?; 2) What are the typical activities associated with each stage in the e-book management process in academic libraries?; 3) What do librarians perceive to be the issues and challenges associated with each of the stages in the e-book management process? 4) How might these issues and challenges be resolved in order to deliver an attractive and effective e-book service to students and academic staff? Their findings and discussion cover collection development policy, budgetary matters, discovery, evaluation and selection, license negotiations, cataloging and delivery, marketing, user education, monitoring and reviewing, renewals and cancellations, and confirming the stages of e-book management. A flowchart of the e-book management process is provided. The information provided is relevant to a broad spectrum of librarians and staff. D. McKay

Vasishta, S. (2013). Electronic resources management: A case study of strategic planning at PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh.  International Journal Of Information Dissemination & Technology, 3(1), 52-57. 

White, M. (2012). “Mining the archive: The development of electronic journals.” Ariadne: A Web & Print Magazine of Internet Issues for Librarians & Information Specialists, (70), 19-19.
With an admitted interest in the history of information resource management, the author examines archived editions of Ariadne, an online journal for information professionals, and selects interesting and relevant articles that trace the movement from print to online publication of scholarly journals in the United Kingdom. In doing so, he emphasizes authors who have made significant contributions to the field. Articles published in early issues of Ariadne, reveal how information professionals weighed the advantages and disadvantages of replacing print journals with e-journals. As technology improved and e-journals began to gain a stronghold as the preferred delivery channel, Ariadne articles reflect the many concerns regarding these online initiatives, especially in terms of access, budget, and archiving digital content. The author’s review emphasizes the collaboration within the information profession to address these concerns, and he encourages readers to explore past issues of Ariadne to learn more about the challenges faced as scholarly journals transitioned to online resources. K. Smith

Wilson, K. (2011). Beyond library software: New tools for Electronic Resources Management. Serials Review, 37(4), 294-304. doi:10.1016/j.serrev.2011.09.010
Wilson showcases three examples of academic libraries adapting tools and technologies (JIRA, Drupal, Basecamp) not normally used to manage electronic resources (ER) acquisitions, workflows, and metadata. Stanford University adapted the Web-based project and issue tracker, JIRA, to track and centralize electronic resources acquisitions. By way of a user-friendly interface, JIRA’s software acts as a repository for ER purchase information allowing managers to keep track of the work volume in various departments. However, JIRA lacks features to create reminders for subscription renewals and license renegotiations. At Eastern Kentucky University, the free content management system Drupal was used to create an ER management system with highly customizable fields. The online project management tool, Basecamp, is used at University of South Florida to assign workflow tasks and replace paper processing slips that track new orders. All three libraries cited the desire for customization as the main draw to explore new non-library tools yet all experienced some difficulty in the learning curve needed to manage the large amount of options available in each software. Understanding current workflow and processes, exploring free trials, and creating thorough documentation can improve the selection and implementation of new non-library tools. D. Greenfield

Yang, S. (2013). From integrated library systems to library management services: Time for change? Library Hi Tech News, 30(2), 1-8. doi:10.1108/LHTN-02-2013-0006

Zha, X., Li, J., & Yan, Y. (2013). Comparison between Chinese and English electronic resources: A survey of users of Chinese university library. Library Hi Tech, 31(1), 109-122. doi:10.1108/07378831311303967

Chapter 6: Document Delivery


Raubenheimer, J. (2010). Enhancing inter-library loans in an open distance learning institution: The UNISA experience. Paper presented at the ALIUA Access 2010 Conference, Brisbane Australia, Sept 2, 2010. Retrieved from
This short paper, originally presented at the Australian Library and Information Association’s Access 2010 conference, summarizes initiatives undertaken by the University of South Africa to improve reference, ILL, and document delivery services to online learners. Its emphasis is on the organizational context of these initiatives and on the organizational partnerships that they involved. Also briefly noted are changes in patron expectations and mobile technologies that University librarians employed in seeking to adapt to these changes. R. Shepard

Chapter 7: Information Literacy (Curriculum, Learning Objectives, Assessment)

Alderson-Rice, J. (2010). Training in information searching for postgraduate students in Brussels. ALISS Quarterly, 5(2), 33-36. Retrieved from
Alderson-Rice describes the challenges of working with 220 postgraduate students enrolled at the Brussels School of International Studies (BSIS), a satellite campus of the University of Kent (UoK). The BSIS does not have a physical library; students have access to local university libraries. Because their courses are taught in English and research papers are written in English, however, students prefer the online library resources offered by UoK. Alderson-Rice travels to Brussels annually to teach the students information literacy. Throughout the year she assists BSIS students strictly via email, which provides many challenges. M. Brahme

Anderson, S. A., & Mitchell, E. R. (2012). Life after TILT: Building an interactive information literacy tutorial. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 147–158. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705106
The librarians at Ferris State University were faced with updating their TILT-based information literacy tutorial for use with an online student orientation aimed at all students. However, concerns about lack of time and of HTML and other web skills resulted in the migration of the information literacy tutorial to a custom built learning management system. This allowed for web-based editing, automatically generated page navigation, and for future updates to not be as time-intensive. The article details the process and challenges faced, and provides a link to the current tutorial (you need to create a log-in to access). A survey was sent to faculty to gauge satisfaction with the new information literacy tutorial, but the results are not included in this article.

Appelt, K. M., & Pendell, K. (2010). Assess and invest: Faculty feedback on library tutorials. College & Research Libraries, 71(3), 245-253.
Librarians at the Library of the Health Sciences at the University of Illinois were awarded a council for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Grant for a project to develop Evidenced-Based Practice tutorials for students. The online tutorials were tailored to each of six health science colleges: Applied Health, Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Public Health. Faculty assessment, a key component of this project, was solicited from faculty in each of the colleges. Faculty critiques varied significantly between colleges and amongst individuals, and resulted in substantial changes to the tutorials. Most importantly, faculty expressed appreciation that their opinions mattered and developed a vested interest in the tutorials’ success. M. Brahme

Appleton, L. (2010). LolliPop for learning resources: Information literacy staff training within further education. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42(3), 191-198.
This article reports on a project to implement an information literacy in-service learning program, entitled LolliPop, among a paraprofessional library and learning resources staff at an academic library in Liverpool. Participation in the two-month training program was mandatory for the 22 staff members working within the Further (or adult) Education sector. The training was delivered in a virtual learning environment (VLE), resulting in participants’ simultaneous exposure and familiarization with VLEs, an additional goal of this project. A post-training questionnaire revealed that staffers’ level of comfort with both e-learning and information literacy principles increased as a result of the training. M. Brahme

Bailey, J. (2012). Informal screencasting: Results of a customer-satisfaction survey with a convenience sample. New Library World, 113(1/2), 7–26. doi:10.1108/03074801211199013
Bailey describes a user satisfaction survey for informal screencasts that had been created using Screenjelly (a free service that is no longer available). Informal screencasts were created as a response to reference questions as well as for general instructional use, and the survey was sent to all of Bailey’s liaison departments and to library staff. Response was generally positive, but there was some difference in responses between those who had had a screencast created for them and those who had only watched one as part of the survey, hinting that further studies should focus on those who had an information need. Tips for creating informal screencasts, based on survey comments, are included. Of note to those looking to perform a similar study, the article provides appendices with the text used for the survey solicitation as well as the survey.

Barnhart, A. C., & Stanfield, A. G. (2011). When coming to campus is not an option: Using web conferencing to deliver library instruction. Reference Services Review, 39(1), 58-65.
In an effort to provide library instruction to commuters and online students, librarians at the University of West Georgia experimented with using the web-conferencing software WIMBA. The librarians’ first attempts at teaching classes through WIMBA offered feedback on potential problems, such as technical concerns with connection speed and issues with the microphones. Solutions to these lessons learned included the idea to team-teach the sessions, with one librarian focused on the instruction and the other attentive to the technical aspects. The library intends to increase marketing of this service while also exploring other uses of web conferencing software, such as “virtually” embedding librarians within classes. Further, instead of mimicking face-to-face instruction as has been the case thus far, they aspire to integrate new, innovative ways of teaching information literacy in an online environment. T. Carter

Baro, E. E., & Keboh, T. (2012). Teaching and fostering information literacy programmes: A survey of five university libraries in Africa. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(5), 311–315. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.07.001
This short article documents the results of a qualitative questionnaire sent to one university library in each of five African countries. The results of the survey are presented as a short paragraph plus a table, on a range of information literacy-related topics including how librarians define information literacy, which information literacy standards are used, the methods used to promote information literacy instruction, and barriers to information literacy.

Becker, B. W. (2010). Digital learning object repositories. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 29(1), 86-88. doi:10.1080/01639260903571898
Digital learning objects (DLOs) are reusable Web-developed applications which have been popular for the past several years. DLOs typically contain a variety of media such as video, audio, and photos. This paper discusses types of DLOs such as presentations, simulations, reference materials, quizzes, and more traditional tutorials found at the Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT) Web site ( In the spring of 2008, the team behind this DLO repository surveyed teaching faculty, librarians, and students in order to obtain information about which information literacy DLOs were most important in terms of their needs. The development team then specified criteria to guide the evaluation of DLOs for inclusion in the repository. The survey found that DLOs must be web-based; reusable in other contexts; interactive; have established learning objectives; and be self-contained. The survey also found that students appreciate learning by discovery, practice, and reinforcement. Students found that DLOs can be visually engaging and are most useful when available at the point of need. E. Blankenship

Boden, C. & Murphy, S.  (2012). The latent curriculum: Breaking conceptual barriers to information architecture.  Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library & Information Practice & Research, 7(1), 1-17.
A series of information literacy tutorial videos were created for an online, graduate-level physical therapy course, but Boden and Murphy discovered during in-person reference consultations that many students still had gaps in their understanding of information architecture.  The revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy was used to analyze the tutorials, revealing a “latent curriculum”: unstated learning objectives that were not addressed by the tutorials.  Common challenges encountered by students in the course and the importance of including instruction relating to higher level cognitive processes (Bloom’s Analyze, Evaluate, and Create) are discussed. K. Giles

Bowen, A. (2012). A LibGuides presence in a Blackboard environment. Reference Services Review, 40(3), 449-468. doi:10.1108/00907321211254698
Librarians have long been experts at creating subject guides to help students in their research.Formerly, those subject guides were generally either in print or various web formats. In the early 2000s, web-based content management systems became available for use in higher education. According to Bowen, libraries have endeavored to find a satisfactory way to make the connection between learning management software and subject guides. With the development of LibGuides by Springshare, many librarians felt that they had found the best tool and have adopted this web-publishing platform for their subject guides. LibGuides are currently utilized in approximately 4300 libraries in 60 countries. In this article, Aaron Bowen describes a project at California State University/Chico in which course-level Libguides were placed in Blackboard Vista and Blackboard Learn learning management software. (This is the learning management software that is in place at CSU.)
Bowen lists 5 approaches to embedding library content in learning management software. He utilized a “micro-level embedded button” that linked students to the Libguide for the course. There was a separate hyperlink to an assignment that required use of the library resources included in the LibGuide. After completion of the assignment which required use of the resources listed on the LibGuide, Bowen surveyed students. Student responses indicated that connecting library resources with the LMS is effective in guiding students to library resources if the guide is “embedded prominently and consistently.”

Brahme, M. (2010). The differences in information seeking behavior between distance and residential doctoral students. Ed.D. dissertation, Pepperdine University, United States — California. Retrieved May 7, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3397982).
This dissertation discussed the lack of sufficient information concerning research practices and preferences of doctoral students in the distance education online programs. The study showed the different research methods and the perceived needs and desires of on-campus and off-campus doctoral students. The doctoral students were interviewed by phone, by Skype, or by TappedIn. The dissertation provides insight and ways to address the needs and desires of doctoral students who are fully online and those who have access to on-campus services. L. Cheresnowski

Carlson, K. (2011). Using Adobe Connect to deliver online library instruction to the RN to BSN program. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(4), 172-180. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2011.634979
Carlson explores the implementation and use of a webinar-based library instruction pedagogy for distance RN to BSN nursing students. This article explores setting up the Adobe Connect platform, technical concerns, and assessment. While Carlson’s attempt at assessment was unsuccessful, this article has many useful nuggets for those interested in adding webinars to their information literacy services. S. Clark

Clapp, M. J., Johnson, M., Schwieder, D., & Craig, C. L. (2013). Innovation in the academy: Creating an online information literacy course. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 247–263. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.805663

Clark, S., & Chinburg, S. (2010). Research performance in undergraduates receiving face to face versus online library instruction: A citation analysis. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 530-542. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488599
This paper describes a research study which explored whether or not students in classes would cite a similar ratio of source types where all variables were identical except for the method of course delivery and information literacy training. This study involved upper-division management information systems classes at Rogers State University. The study also examined the differences in information literacy performance by students in online classes vs. traditional face-to-face classes. Citations from research papers assigned to sections of both types of classes were analyzed using the citation analysis process. Study results showed there were virtually no differences between the performances of the online students versus the face-to-face students. The authors anticipate their work will establish a basis for future research involving citation analysis as a means of testing the relative effectiveness of embedded librarian programs and other forms of library instruction. E. Blankenship

Coffman, T. (2013). Using inquiry in the classroom: Developing creative thinkers and information literate students (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Craig, C. L., & Friehs, C. G. (2013). Video and HTML: Testing online tutorial formats with biology students. Journal of Web Librarianship, 7(3), 292–304. doi:10.1080/19322909.2013.815112

Dawson, P. H., Jacobs, D. L., & Yang, S. Q. (2010). An online tutorial for SciFinder for organic chemistry classes. Science & Technology Libraries, 29(4), 298-306. doi:10.1080/0194262X.2010.520251
This article reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of an online tutorial program created to familiarize students with the chemical literature database SciFinder, at Rider University. Previously, the science librarian was expected to demonstrate the entire tutorial in-class in less than thirty minutes, without any hands-on sessions. This program was designed by a partnership of two librarians and one chemistry professor, to be presented in organic chemistry classes. The article also explains how Flash technology was used along with Captivate (Adobe) for design; how storyboards and screenshots were prepared; and how the tutorial functioned during an evaluation phase. On the basis of the feedback from the students, the designers plan revisions of some of the modules. C. George

Dewan, P., & Steeleworthy, M. (2013). Incorporating online instruction in academic libraries: Getting ahead of the curve. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 278–296. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.804020

Dominguez Flores, N. (2010). Online learning communities: Enhancing the acquisition of information skills by undergraduate students of the University of Puerto Rico at Carolina. Ph.D. dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, United States — Florida. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3402939).
The Five Standards of Information Literacy approved by the Association of College and Research Libraries form competencies for information literacy practices. The limitations of the traditional one-shot library instruction session and online tutorials evidenced the need for more interaction, information sharing and contact with librarians to develop the requisite information skills necessary for the students’ course work. Online Learning Communities were investigated and compared with online tutorials and one-shot face-to-face library instruction. The four groups studied were: 1) the control group–No Online Tutorial and No Online Learning Community (One-Shot Face-to-Face Library Instruction); 2) Online Learning Community; 3) Online Tutorials and; 4) Online Tutorials and Online Learning Community. Pre and Post tests were administered to determine the level of acquisition of the information skill sets. Focus groups considered student satisfaction with the treatment they received. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found that the Online Learning Community had the highest mean or average and the lowest standard deviation or dispersal of responses; these results indicate a statistically significant difference. To ensure the validity of these results, a Tukey analysis, to identify patterns of behavior among populations, found the Online Learning Community was the most effective method. Student’s satisfaction with the Online Learning Community was high as was their satisfaction with the Online Tutorial; however, the post test scores for the Online Tutorial were lower. Therefore, online learning communities provided a greater degree of success in supporting students as they developed information skills. M. Giltrud

Dow, M. J., Algarni, M., Blackburn, H., Diller, K., Hallett, K., Musa, A., & Valenti, S. (2012). Infoliteracy@adistance: Creating opportunities to reach (instruct) distance students. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 265-283.
This study builds on the theoretical information seeking model by Marcia J. Bates (2002) but looks at developing a new model investigating online graduate students and their academic information seeking. The authors used an electronic survey and semi-structured interviews to collect their data and after analyzing it, concluded that the students (1) for the most part, acquired information passively through social and online networks, (2) had difficulty accessing online information sources because of low or little information literacy skills, (3) lacked online searching support, and (4) adopted the principle of least effort, except in some cases. The researchers believe that librarians can use this theoretical model to advocate for university resources and as a way to reach out to online faculty and students. Y. Tran

Dowell, D., & Small, F. A. (2011). What is the impact of online resource materials on student self-learning strategies? Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2), 140-148.
The use of online resource materials and self-regulated learning, a form of intentional, focused and conscious learning, were studied in cohorts of students in the first year program from both on-campus and distance education. Metacognition, or thinking about thinking, helps students understand how they think and learn. It is reflective and a higher order intellectual skill that self-regulated learners develop over time. Therefore, the process of monitoring and self-regulating can be adjusted based on cues from the environment such as whether the student achieves the desired grade or some other personal goal. This study examined whether students adopt online environment tools into their self-regulated learning and whether students who adopt these resources achieve higher grades. E-content download, subject site visits and subject outcomes were examined with the thought that online engagement positively impacts student outcomes. The data were analyzed using correlations, simple regression and Tobit regression to assess the online activity and student outcomes. The results found that distance education students strategically incorporated the behaviors of downloading articles and accessing and searching subject sites into their learning strategy. They engaged in the online environment and used online materials somewhat more than on campus students. However, the online subject environment, while significant, had a limited effect on performance outcomes. Distance students had more downloads and site visits. These behaviors positively affected their assessment and subject performance, whereas on-campus students results were negligible by comparison. M. Giltrud

Edwards, M., Kumar, S., & Ochoa, M. (2010). Assessing the value of embedded librarians in an online graduate educational technology course. Public Services Quarterly, 6(2-3), 271-291.
Edwards, Kumar and Ochoa implemented an embedded librarian project in an online graduate educational technology course. After a robust literature review and discussions with faculty, it was decided that two embedded librarians would collaborate on this project. A key factor for their success was meeting with the instructor to discuss the course content and review the assignments. Moreover, the learning outcomes for the information literacy instruction and the subject matter were mapped against the course content. In this way, a situated-cognition or a problem-based learning approach provided authentic activities and an environment for true knowledge acquisition and successful application of skills. Additionally, videos, online synchronous and asynchronous interactions were designed to engage students and facilitate the learning process. Pre- and posttests, qualitative assessments of the online discussion and online feedback from the students were obtained. A combination of open-ended questions and Likert scale responses were presented to students, for example: “Please rate your comfort level using library resources (including databases and catalogs)” and “Do you feel that the results you retrieve in your searches are better than the results you retrieved before watching the embedded librarian session? How? Why?” Such questions targeted specific skills and therefore provided rich, relevant and significant results. Best-practice guidelines acquired from this multifaceted methodology presented valuable indicators for future embedded librarian projects. M. Giltrud

Edwards, Mary E. & Black, Erik W. Contemporary instructor-librarian collaboration: A case study of an online embedded librarian implementation. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 284-311. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2012.705690
Edwards and Black describe the implementation and assessment of an embedded librarian project in an online graduate course. Students were health care professionals seeking Master of Education degrees. The embedded librarian created a variety of learning objects for the course after working with the instructor to determine likely student needs. While the librarian also participated in course discussions, students mostly relied on the learning objects. The project was evaluated through pre- and post-course tests of students’ self-efficacy and skills, citation analysis of final projects, a post-course instructor interview, and librarian observations. The authors include recommendations and resources for librarians new to embedding in online courses. K. Conerton

Gadagin, B. R. (2012). “Workplace Learning: A New Technique for Continuing education To LIS Professionals in Knowledge Society”. SRELS Journal of Information Management, 49(2),175-180.
Gadagin discussed the third industrial revolution, the technological revolution, and how the creation of virtual universities and other changes in universities have shifted conditions and imposed growing financial constraints. This has had an impact on LIS professionals due to a growing virtual and geographic-free environment. Workplace learning is now an essential component for LIS professionals as they develop skills needed to achieve the outcomes needed for employment. This training will also contribute to personal growth as LIS professionals will need to participate in continuing education, collaborative learning, increased self-directed learning, and increased opportunities to interact with others. Conditions of workplace learning will include individual traits, such as motivation, interest, enthusiasm, and dedication, context, autonomy, relevance and benefits, and practice. A “reformation of workplace learning” will need to occur where LIS professionals will receive help in overcoming obstacles and mentoring. The library will become a “cutting edge” institution, a “place of learning”, and a “professional community of learners, where everyone is both a teacher and a learner.” D.B. Geier

Gunn, M., & Miree, C. (2012). Business information literacy teaching at different academic levels: an exploration of skills and implications for instructional design. Journal Of Information Literacy, 6(1), 17-34.
Librarians and academic staff often believe that final-year undergraduate students hold greater research and information literacy (IL) abilities than their first-year counterparts. This study looked at the in IL skills of first-year undergraduate business students versus those in their final year of the program. IL is integrated into most first-year classes at Oakland University (OU) in Michigan. Librarians and academic staff at OU have seen a wide range of IL skills over the years and came to believe that a more systematic inclusion of IL should be offered earlier in the business program. The study looked to answer two questions: (1) Can the same online, subject-specific IL instruction benefit first and final year business students? (2) Can the same approach to online IL instruction be effective for a variety of IL skills? A pre and post-test was developed to go along with the IL online tutorial. The study found a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of all students (within their group: first or final year) after taking the online IL tutorial.  Improvement was also found in both groups after exposure to the online IL tutorial that covered the same content regardless of which group the student was in. R.E. Brown

Harmon, C., & Messina, M. (2013). E-learning in libraries: Best practices. Lanham, MD : The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Held, T. (2010). Blending in: Collaborating with an instructor in an online course. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(4), 153-165.
The author begins this article by listing some ways that librarians can provide services to online courses. He then goes on to describe the process that he went through as an embedded librarian to collaborate with an English professor for an online course. He discusses the decisions they made regarding content, delivery of content, providing services during the course, and assessment and feedback. He concludes the article with things both he and the professor learned during this endeavor and changes they will make as they continue to collaborate for this online course. C. Girton

Hemming, W., Johnstone, B. T., & Montet, M. (2012). Create a sense of place for the mobile learner. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(304), 312-322.
This article explores the notion of “library as place” in a virtual context (“virtual space as place”) with regard to Bucks Community College Library’s online offerings in response to its increasing population of mobile users. A model for the “virtual library as place” is introduced to provide a more holistic understanding of information literacy for online users. Expanding their work as embedded librarians to offering all online library users information literacy support, the authors also detail their library’s journey of creating a comprehensive mobile platform that links users to library resources and services, including different modes of research assistance. With the authors adopting the standpoint of all library users being potential distance or online library users, this article is intended for librarians serving on-campus as well as distance education populations. A. Knight

Hemmig, W., & Montet, M. (2010). The “just for me” virtual library: Enhancing an embedded eBrarian program. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 657-669. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488943
Using a learner-centered information literacy (IL) program, libraries on the three campuses of the Bucks County Pennsylvania Community College, FTE of about 8,000, brought IL instruction into the virtual classroom. Online enrollment in fall 2009 was 3,619, up nearly 35% from fall 2008. A pilot project for the WebCT Introduction to Psychology class began in spring 2008, following the Community College of Vermont model, with a dedicated online library research discussion topic moderated by an embedded librarian, and Adobe Captivate tutorials targeting the specific course assignment. Librarians, added as teaching assistants, posted links to three tutorials and created a library research discussion topic. The Embedded eBrarian Program was launched in summer 2008 in three courses. Fall 2008 was two courses; spring 2009, four courses; summer 2009, three courses; and fall 2009, six. Three full-time librarians, several part-time librarians and a few other full-time librarians were needed for embedding and creation of tutorials. Part-time librarians at the remote campuses created tutorials while on duty at the reference desk. Tutorials needed frequent updating. Added in summer 2009 was Springshare’s LibGuides, remotely hosted electronic content management. Each LibGuide was a one-stop resource to simplify, clarify, and promote each student’s experience. Hit rates were significantly higher than with the tutorials. Interactivity is the critical element for a successful library presence in online courses, including collaboration between librarians and online learning staff, between librarians and online classroom faculty and, most importantly, direct collaboration between online students and the virtual library within their course spaces. H. Gover

Henrich, K. J., & Attebury, R. I. (2013). Using Blackboard to assess course-specific asynchronous library instruction. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 17(3-4), 167–179. doi:10.1080/10875301.2013.772930

Hight, M. (2010). Unlearn what you have learned: Digital disorganization and information literacy instruction. Communications in Information Literacy, 4(1), 12-16. Retrieved from
In creating a fully online upper-division research and information literacy course, the author was influenced by Roy Rosenzweig’s proposal for a Wikipedia-like collaborative and interactive U.S. history textbook. Similarly, the author found persuasive David Weinberger’s observation that traditional organizational schemes mean nothing to students developing research strategies in the random, digital free-for-all of the Internet; instead, researchers create a unique organizational scheme relevant to themselves as individuals. The author further heeded David Scott’s advice to “unlearn what you have learned about controlling your online content” and designed a class including thirteen modules in which students are given problems to solve. Students are directed toward library-based resources, but not restricted to specific searching methods or the use of library vetted material. The first ten modules require students to write a four-to-six paragraph evaluative essay posted on a class wiki at the end of each module. The final three modules require more research and longer writing assignments. Group work is not required, but students often form study groups and the wiki does allow for interaction between students. Without heavily structured course content, the instructor is free to act as a facilitator and guide, responding to students as their individual level of research sophistication develops. Students are given control of their own learning, making every class and library visit meaningful. H. Gover

Jacklin, M. L., & Robinson, K. (2013). Evolution of various library instruction strategies: Using student feedback to create and enhance online active learning assignments. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library & Information Practice & Research, 8(1), 1–21. doi:10.21083/partnership.v8i1.2499

Johnston, N. (2010). Is an online learning module an effective way to develop information literacy skills? Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 41(3), 207-218.
An online information literacy instruction module for first year social work students was implemented at James Cook University, Australia. The content of the module included search strategy development, skills in use of databases and the web, evaluation of information, and writing APA citations as well as orientation to campus learning technologies. Completion of the module was mandatory. The online format offered advantages including student self-pacing and flexibility. Focus group and survey responses to the module were positive. However, some students expressed a preference for a hybrid given follow-up questions. L. Haycock

Jones, S. & Green, L.  (2012). Transforming collaboration. Teacher Librarian, 40(2), 26-31.
Scheduling and staffing issues can make it difficult to provide K-12 students with in-person information literacy instruction. Virtual collaboration allows school librarians and teachers greater flexibility in incorporating library instruction into the curriculum. Online learning units (OLUs), which may be used independently or as a supplement to in-person instruction, also benefit students by allowing them to work at their own pace and gain experience using technology. This article describes several different approaches to virtual collaboration, such as skills-based units and professional development units. Jones and Green provide a graph and scenario to illustrate each approach. The authors also list a number of free online tools that librarians can use in developing OLUs. K. Giles

Kammerlocher, L. L., Couture, J. J., Sparks, O. O., Harp, M. M., & Allgood, T. T. (2011). Information literacy in learning landscapes: Flexible, adaptable, low-cost solutions. Reference Services Review, 39(3), 390-400.
This article details the learning objects created by librarians at Arizona State University. Like their colleagues at other institutions, ASU librarians needed a low-cost way to create and disseminate tutorials and related instructional materials. Additionally, they needed an efficient way of storing, retrieving and managing these learning objects. This resulted in the creation of materials to use and reuse in a number of diverse ways. This article is informative in its description of screencasting tools and the selection of Omeka for a learning object repository. L. Haycock

Kelley, J. (2012). Off the shelf and out of the box: Saving time, meeting outcomes and reaching students with information literacy modules. Journal of Library & Information services in Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 335-349. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705160
Librarians at the College of DuPage adapted the University of Washington’s Research 101 tutorial to provide information literacy instruction to students in online and independent learning classes. They added local information and more in-depth quizzes. A summer pilot program allowed the librarians to make changes based on student and instructor feedback before making the modules more widely available.

Instructors imported the modules and associated quizzes into their Blackboard shells; they could also modify the modules with subject-specific information. Faculty interest was high thanks to increased emphasis on information literacy in the college’s new general education outcomes. Soon after the modules were introduced, students were already using the unmodified tutorials in multiple classes. The authors discuss ways to avoid this, including marketing the tutorials to specific classes. K. Conerton

Kenton, J., & Blummer, B. (2010). Promoting digital literacy skills: Examples from the literature and implications for academic librarians. Community & Junior College Libraries, 16(2), 84-99.
This literature review offers an overview of concepts like “digital literacy” to give an understanding how digital literacy connects to and differs from information literacy. Digital literacy can bolster information literacy and offers opportunities for librarians to use new technologies to support instruction. Examples of digital literacy instructional programs are included and implications are discussed. L. Haycock

Koury, R., Francis, M. J., Gray, C. J., Jardine, S. J., & Guo, R. (2010). Staying on top of your game and scoring big with Adobe Presenter multimedia tutorials. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 4(4), 208-218.
With increasing off-campus enrollment and uncertain funding, the library team at Idaho State University chose Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in for creating multimedia tutorials. The software was chosen from among many contenders because of its relative ease of use and its low cost. This article provides an overview of the selection process, timeline, design tips, U.S. Rehabilitation Act concerns, evaluation, and marketing of tutorials created with Adobe Presenter. Further attention is given to the challenges and opportunities of the Adobe Presenter plug-in as a creative tool for tutorials used by distance learners. J. Hutson

Kratochvíl, J. (2013). Evaluation of e-learning course, Information Literacy, for medical students. The Electronic Library, 31(1), 55–69. doi:10.1108/02640471311299137

Kumar, S., & Edwards, M. E. (2013). Information literacy and embedded librarianship in an online graduate programme. Journal of Information Literacy, 7(1), 3–17. doi:10.11645/7.1.1722

Kumar, S., & Ochoa, M. (2012). Program-integrated information literacy instruction for online graduate students. Journal Of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(2), 67-78. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2012.684430
Graduate students present additional challenges when developing information literacy instruction, as they require advanced research skills and enter with a spectrum of various existing skills. Kuman and Ochoa (2012) recognized this challenge and addressed it as they designed, implemented, and assessed an instructional series.  Kuman and Ochoa surveyed the graduate students’ perceived information literacy skills prior to program enrollment, as well as their preferences for instruction.  Two methods were utilized to deliver information literacy instruction: pre-created tutorials and synchronous sessions. Over the course of a year, the students received tutorials scaffolding their learning. Synchronous sessions also ran the course of the year, but served more as a response to differences between perceived skills and actual skills or student-generated instructional requests.  Topics covered included general library orientation, database searching, and citation management tools.  An end-of-year survey gauged student perceptions and reactions to the scaffolded learning series.  The findings conclude that students were most satisfied with synchronous online sessions, despite their pre-survey preference for asynchronous. C. Schubert

Ladell-Thomas, J. (2012). Do-It-Yourself Information Literacy: Self-Directed Learning at a Distance. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 376-386.
Using Springshare’s LibGuides, the librarians at Central Michigan University developed learning modules to assist online graduate students with their literature reviews. The instructional design process called ADDIE (analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate), ACRL information literacy standard, and Bloom’s revised taxonomy were used in developing the modules. Self-assessment was built into each section of the module, including a final self-assessment that allowed students to determine if the skills they developed as a result of completing learning modules were effective in their research and writing an effective literature review. Each self-assessment response was anonimized and received by the guide creators. User polls, usage statistics, and a survey were also included to assess whether or not the modules were meeting student needs. The authors found that this was a successful way to provide students with self-directed learning opportunities that fill in gaps in student knowledge about writing an effective literature review. Y. Tran

Laster, B., Blummer, B., & Kenton, J. M. (2010). Psychosemiotics and libraries: Identifying signways in library informational guides, games, and tutorials. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 4(3), 106-118.
Online instructional resources for distance learners are an efficient way to provide information in the virtual arena. The authors of this article suggest that the use of psychosemiotics, that is, signways, enhance the information literacy training of distance education students. Filled with excellent examples that can actually be used, this article provides a rationale, literature review, methodology, findings and limitations of using this approach. J. Hutson

Loesch, M. F. (2011). From both sides, now: Librarians team up with computer scientist to deliver virtual computer-information literacy instruction. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(4), 181-192. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2011.641712
In 2008 two library faculty members and a computer science and mathematics professor at Seton Hall University obtained a grant to develop an online undergraduate course titled “Computers, Information, and the Modern World.” They worked with an instructional designer to construct a self-guided course for distance education students, to be delivered through the Blackboard course management system. Each professor was responsible for specific portions of the course with intensive collaboration during the five month development process. A strong sense of collegiality grew among the faculty members and the result was an online course which met all the requirements of the “Quality Matters (QM) Rubric for Online and Hybrid Courses.” Specifics of the course design and process are described by the author, who concludes that virtual education benefits from such collaborative efforts. J. Hutton

Luo, L. (2010). Web 2.0 integration in information literacy instruction: An overview. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(1), 32-40. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2009.11.004
Employing a web survey and follow-up interviews of information literacy instruction librarians, the author examined their use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, wikis, video sharing, and social bookmarking. Respondents were primarily experienced academic librarians teaching undergraduates in face-to-face non-credit class sessions. The tools were described as particularly useful for teaching the information literacy concepts of information evaluation, information organization, and copyright. Three levels of technology usage were identified: use for the librarian’s own purposes (such as social bookmarking to prepare the course content), use to deliver course content (e.g. YouTube videos, blogs and wikis to publish lesson plans, guides and resources), and use to illustrate information literacy concepts (e.g. social bookmark tagging to illustrate controlled vocabulary, communal editing of wikis to demonstrate need for information evaluation). The study concluded that librarians should keep abreast of evolving Web 2.0 tools and their potential to improve information literacy pedagogy. An appendix of “Resources suggested by respondents to help librarians keep up with the Web 2.0 development” can be found on the web via the article DOI. J. Hutton

Lyons, T., & Warlick, S. (2013). Health sciences information literacy in CMS environments: Learning from our peers. Electronic Library, 31(6), 770–780. doi:10.1108/EL-06-2012-0063

Maddison, T. (2013). Learn where you live: Delivering information literacy instruction in a distributed learning environment. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(3), 264–277. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.806276

Mages, W. K., & Garson, D. S. (2010). Get the cite right: Design and evaluation of a high-quality online citation tutorial. Library and Information Science Research, 32(2), 138-146. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2009.10.004
Development of an online tutorial to teach proper use of APA (American Psychological Association) citation rules was undertaken by research and instruction librarians at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. The need for this multimodal-learning online tool grew out of a live workshop on APA style for incoming graduate students, many of whom were either unable to attend or needed assistance later. The tutorial, APA Exposed: Everything You Always Wanted to Know about APA Format but Were Afraid to Ask (APA Exposed), was subsequently made available to anyone with Internet access. The authors present the results of a mixed-methods study of tutorial participants to identify whether the tutorial meets students’ and scholars’ need for APA citation instruction, and whether the participants’ academic affiliations, background or familiarity with APA style would affect their responses. An online survey to participants solicited tutorial feedback during the one-year beta test. Triangulation with website visitor-tracking data, e-mail correspondence, and Google searching of educational institutions linking to the tutorial aided in substantiating the research results. A majority of participants (98%), both novice and proficient users of APA style, found the tutorial useful and 49% reported substantial improvement in their understanding. Data from survey comments, e-mail correspondence, and links to the tutorial from other academic institution and library websites validated the positive ratings. The authors concluded that quality, accessible online tutorials such as APA Exposed, which integrate principles of universal design for learning and are developed by a team of experts, can deliver effective and meaningful information literacy instruction to the academic community. J. Hutton

Magnuson, M. L. (2013). Web 2.0 and information literacy instruction: Aligning technology with ACRL standards. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(3), 244–251. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2013.01.008

Malingre, M.-L., Serres, A., Sainsot, A., & Men, H. L. (2013). Form@doct: Designing innovative online tutorials for PhD students in France. IFLA Journal, 39(1), 45–57. doi:10.1177/0340035212472950

Miller, R., O’Donnell, E., Pomea, N., Rawson, J., Shepard, R., & Thomes, C. (2010). Library-led faculty workshops: Helping distance educators meet information literacy goals in the online classroom. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 830-856. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488977
An important aspect of meeting information literacy goals for students is for librarians to develop close collaborative relationships with classroom faculty. In an attempt to achieve this, the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has developed faculty workshops aimed at raising the awareness of information literacy standards as well as the awareness of library resources and services among its distance educators. The library-led workshops, as detailed in the article, cover various aspects of information literacy and library research, with the goal of having faculty both create assignments that utilizes library resources and services as well as having faculty help achieve university information literacy standards for students. Although these workshops are time consuming, similar workshops done on a smaller scale can be just as effective in establishing lasting relationships with faculty. L. Ismail

Mussell, J., & Croft, R. (2013). Discovery layers and the distance student: Online search habits of students. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 18–39. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705561

Nazari, M. (2011). A contextual model of information literacy. Journal of Information Science, 37(4), 345-359.
This study details a new contextual model of information literacy (IL) that was developed based on the findings of an exploratory case study of IL in an online distance learning Geographic Information Sciences/Systems (GIS) program. Based on the instructors’ and students’ conceptions and experiences of information, the author identified three new perspectives of IL. Rationale of the new model is presented, as well as how it operates in GIS and implications for pedagogy and methodology. A. Kepsel

Nazari, M., & Webber, S. (2011). What do the conceptions of geo/spatial information tell us about information literacy? Journal of Documentation, 67(2), 334-354.
This paper looks at the nature of information literacy (IL) in the Geographic Information Science/Systems (GIS) discipline, an area that has not been fully studied. Data about information-related conceptions and experiences of students and instructors in an online distance-learning GIS program were collected and analyzed by a grounded approach. Four conceptions of geo/spatial information (GI) were identified, along with three interrelated features. Taking these characteristics into consideration, the authors discuss new competencies of IL needed in the GIS field. A. Kepsel

Nicholson, H. H., & Eva, N. N. (2011). Information literacy instruction for satellite university students. Reference Services Review, 39(3), 497-513.
University of Lethbridge librarians undertook a pilot project to use a low cost and low technology method to provide a real time feel to library instruction for their growing student population taking classes at a distance. Before launching their project they researched the literature to see what had been done in this area for distance students, teaching information literacy and library instruction. In their initial launch they chose not to invest in more sophisticated available technology, which required more expertise and infrastructure. They used something that was easily and freely available, Skype. The authors give rationale for choosing their technology, their course plan and delivery mode. They also provide the advantages and disadvantages that they encountered in the pilot. Their conclusions were found to be successful and received well by the students and faculty, and the librarians intend on continuing to use Skype for individual research consultations. They also want to continue to investigate new technologies that could be utilized to achieve the face-to-face experience from a distance. J. Kind

Niedbala, M., & Fogleman, J. (2010). Taking library 2.0 to the next level: Using a course wiki for teaching information literacy to honors students. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 867-882. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488986
A librarian and a professor collaborated to teach students in an entry-level education class the information literacy skills needed to succeed in college. They attempted to do this through introduction of library instruction, scaffolded learning blocks, and peer evaluation within the context of a wiki. The outcome was successful integration of key Association of College & Research Libraries information literacy standards and an introductory understanding of library research and scholarly writing. The collaborative learning was based on the Net generation’s need for relevance and collaboration. The course writers used backward design and based instructional content on principles of scaffolded learning and writing to learn. Web 2.0 tools can successfully be incorporated in learning to achieve information literacy instruction. J. Kind

Olivas, A. P., & Chan, I. (2013). Beyond the reference desk: A study on the effectiveness of low-cost distance library services at California State University San Marcos. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 40–52. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705177

Ovadia, S. (2010). Writing as an information literacy tool: Bringing writing in the disciplines to an online library class. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 899-908. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.488990
Writing in the Disciplines (WID) naturally aligns in a completely online educational experience because of the inherent need for communication by writing. The author took a yearlong program which introduces faculty from all disciplines at his institution how to integrate writing in their classes. An introductory course, LRC103, Internet Research, was chosen to be the first fully online course, using Blackboard as the backbone for the course content and communication. The WID format allowed the students the freedom to write without the burden of comments and criticism. In a one-credit course, it was difficult to have the minimal assignments needed in the WID format, so the instructor broke major assignments into multiple parts. There were many positives from this WID implementation. WID is not a total answer for librarians in the assessment of information literacy standards, but it does allow a good verbal picture of what the student experienced in the research process, whether in a library database or a Google Scholar search. WID allows focus on the process and evaluation of the process rather than the technology. J. Kind

Ovadia, S., & White, S. (2010). Bringing an online credit research class from concept to reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(4), 197-207. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2010.524828
Course designers used a constructivist theoretical basis, designing the course to help students actively construct their own learning experiences. Activities used prior knowledge of searching Google and compared that against searching Academic Search Complete or Lexis Nexis. Blackboard’s discussion board was used to teach students how to be an online student as well as encourage them to reflect upon their experiences. Challenges included student self-motivation and interest levels and unfamiliarity with Microsoft Word; faculty learning how to grade online, and technical issues such as incompatible file formats. Course designers learned to make assignments very explicit, develop a feedback mechanism and develop alternate delivery means in case of technology failure. Faculty were positive about the teaching experience because it forced them to get out of students’ way and relinquish control. N. Mactague

Pastula, M. (2010). Use of information and communication technology to enhance the information literacy skills of distance students. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(3), 77-86. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2010.506360 Pastula, a librarian at Massey University in New Zealand discusses their use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to reach distance students. The article reviews the use of Web-based how-to guides and tutorials, multimedia tutorials using Adobe Captivate and distance consultations using Adobe Connect Presenter.  While Adobe Captivate offers more functionality than a simple PowerPoint slide show, it also has drawbacks, including user unfamiliarity, user lack of viewing software, and users having slow Internet connections. Adobe Connect Presenter allows real-time interaction between librarian and distance student, but requires broadband Internet and more than a minimal level of computer proficiency on the part of students. Pastula also discusses characteristics of adult vs. traditional-aged learners and recommends future research into assessment of single-session, online library instruction. N. Mactague

Rand, A. D. (2013). A model for designing library instruction for distance learning. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1-2), 84–92. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705570

Rapchak, M., & Behary, R. (2013). Digital immigrants, digital learning: Reaching adults through information literacy instruction online. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(4), 349–359. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2013.842950

Sachs, D. E., Langan, K. A., Leatherman, C. C., & Walters, J. L. (2013). Assessing the effectiveness of online information literacy tutorials for millennial undergraduates. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 20(3/4), 327–351. doi:10.1080/10691316.2013.829365

Searing, S. E. (2013). In it for the long haul: Lessons from a decade of assessment. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 111–142. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705684

Shaffer, B. A. (2011). Graduate student library research skills: Is online instruction effective? Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1-2), 35-55.
This study explores the learning and confidence levels of graduate education students enrolled in online classes at the State University of New York at Oswego. Although existing studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of online information literacy instruction, these studies have not focused on graduate students. In pre- and post-test surveys, learning outcomes were compared in online and face-to-face courses in the education department. Questions included catalog and database search strategies, as well as citation analyses. In addition, students were polled on library research confidence levels and general satisfaction with their instructional experience. The results of the survey indicate that while graduate students’ learning and confidence levels increased significantly in both instructional environments, satisfaction levels were higher in the face-to-face group. Topics for further study include ways to improve satisfaction levels, enhancing the distance learning experience with increased instructional assistance, and early identification of the technical support needs of online learners. L. Marcus

Shell, L., Crawford, S., & Harris, P. (2013). Aided and embedded: The team approach to instructional design. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 7(1/2), 143–155. doi:10.1080/1533290X.2012.705627

Stagg, A., & Kimmins, L. (2012). Research skills development through collaborative virtual learning environments. Reference Services Review, 40(1), 61-74.  doi: 10.1108/00907321211203630
Stagg and Kimmins (2012) developed short video tutorials to help first-year Business students develop confidence in their research skills and learn about support resources.  The videos were developed and hosted through the Learning Management System. These videos were designed for Business students, contextualizing the research skills to a specific discipline. The researchers utilized a design-based research approach, allowing for continual gathering of feedback from students and faculty and updating of content based on those findings. All videos were designed using dual coding theory.  Video content also aimed to not just demonstrate the technology, but also incorporate higher order thinking related to research. The research findings indicate highest usage of the videos occurs before assignments are due, as a “just-in-time” resolution to questions. Over a quarter of students were return visitors to the site. Web analytics also identified a wide distribution of users among Business majors. Future directions for evaluation of this project include investigating impact of these videos beyond the first-year. C. Schubert

Stiwinter, K. (2013). Using an interactive online tutorial to expand library instruction. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(1), 15–41. doi:10.1080/10875301.2013.777010

Su, S., & Kuo, J. (2010). Design and development of Web-based information literacy tutorials. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(4), 320-328. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.05.006
The authors examined tutorials in ACRL’s Peer-Reviewed Instructional Materials Online (PRIMO) database to discern trends in online library tutorials (which topics are widely covered) and to determine teaching strategies that are used to good effect in designing library tutorials. Su and Kuo found that the most popular topics covered in tutorials include information search and retrieval, proper citation, and using online catalogs. Other popular categories of topics are information literacy in general (evaluating and using sources) and introducting students to specific library resources and services, for example, through a virtual library tour. Quality teaching techniques employed in the tutorials included clearly stated learning objectives; a modular structure, allowing students to quickly access a specific topic of interest; and a collaborative approach by which students can engage in discussions with other users viewing the tutorial. This study will be useful to instruction librarians as they plan and design their own Web-based tutorials. R. Miller

Sult, L., Mery, Y., Blakiston, R., & Kline, E. (2013). A new approach to online database instruction: Developing the guide on the side. Reference Services Review, 41(1), 125–133. doi:10.1108/00907321311300947

Swarm, D. J., Vincent, K. K., & Gordon, L. C. (2013). A case study for combining technologies for the delivery of information literacy and community to students at remote locations using live synchronous video-conferencing. Journal of Web Librarianship, 7(2), 215–230. doi:10.1080/19322909.2013.785228

Tang, Y., Tseng, H. W., & Morris, B. (2013). Distance learners’ self-efficacy on information seeking and preferences of resources selection. World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2013, 2013(1), 2125–2130.

Thompson, P. (2010). The body in the library: Using collaborative working to develop effective and efficient online information literacy training for distance learners at the University of Portsmouth. SCONUL Focus, (49), 36-39. Retrieved from
Thompson describes how she repurposed an onsite, game-based library orientation for use by distance students at the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom. The orientation, known as “The Body in the Library,” is a murder-mystery scenario in which students follow clues to solve the mystery, learning information-literacy skills along the way. In creating the online game, which was designed to look like a police case file, Thompson worked with a law and criminology librarian as well as with her school’s department for curriculum and quality enhancement. Web analytics and student feedback have shown the early version of the online orientation to be a success. Thompson notes that a critical element in developing this kind of online, game-based orientation is to first determine learning outcomes–what the students need to know–and to develop the scenerio based on those outcomes. R. Miller

Thornes, S. L. (2012). Creating an online tutorial to support information literacy and academic skills development. Journal Of Information Literacy, 6(1), 81-95. doi: 10.11645/6.1.1654
In response to questions by students after an in-person library orientation, Thornes (2012) started the ambitious project of transforming the in-person materials into an asynchronous online tutorial for continued support through the semester.  This study involved graduate students in a Geography program at the University of Leeds. Tutorial creators utilized existing tutorials in their Skills@Library collection of instructional materials and created new tutorial segments to have a single complete research support tutorial. Consultation with faculty, a learning technologist, and the Quality Assurance Agency standards for geography learning outcomes informed the new content developed for the tutorial. Thornes used Articulate software to include a content navigation column for moving between topics and interactive drag-and-drop activities and quizzes. Limitations with the study include the lack of student feedback and the loss of web analytics generated from the learning management system. C. Schubert

Tunon, J., & Ramirez, L. (2010). ABD or EdD? A model of library training for distance doctoral students. Journal of Library Administration, 50(7/8), 989-996. doi:10.1080/01930826.2010.489004
The authors describe an effective library instruction program designed to serve doctoral students taking classes at a distance. The authors cite literature showing gaps in the research skills of doctoral students; furthermore, the authors note particular challenges they face at Nova Southeastern University (NSU), where they serve a very large, diverse population of distance students working toward a doctorate in education. NSU librarians were able to develop a multifaceted instruction program, taking place online and face-to-face at satellite locations, to reach first-year doctoral students at the students’ points of need. The authors also describe how they are able to actively serve ABD (“all but dissertation”) students who have finished classwork but have become bogged down in the process of writing their dissertations. The instruction program outlined in this article will be of interest to distance librarians serving all types of students, not merely doctoral candidates. R. Miller

Usova, T. (2011). Optimizing our teaching: Hybrid mode of instruction. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library & Information Practice & Research, 6(2), 1-12.
Hybrid instruction, also called blended learning, combines live instruction with online teaching. It has been shown to yield better results than either method used on its own. The Bibliothèque Saint-Jean (BSJ), University of Alberta, began using a hybrid mode of instruction for the library instruction embedded in one of the school’s required classes. The librarians at BSJ combine face-to-face time with students in a traditional classroom setting with online self-directed learning exercises. This article outlines the hybrid model used by the BSJ librarians. Focus is given to how students are engaged before, during, and after the class. The author outlines how each of the ten principles developed by Associate Profession Shibley, author of “10 Ways to Improve Blending Learning Course Design,” are implemented. There is a significant focus on keeping students active during the learning process and reinforcing information through the various methods of instruction. M. Powers

Waite, K., Gannon-Leary, P., & Carr, J. The role and responsibilities of an e-tutor librarian. Journal of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 5(4), 129-148.
In problem-based or inquiry-based curriculums the role of tutors has become common. E-tutoring librarians are also becoming more familiar as more information literacy programs are being delivered electronically. The authors outline five responsibilities of the e-tutor and discuss how each plays a part in student learning outcomes: hosting, demonstrating, regulating, responding, and summarizing. The article addresses specific challenges and implications faced by the e-tutor librarian in fulfilling the demands of their role. M. Powers

Walton, G., & Hepworth, M. (2013). Using assignment data to analyse a blended information literacy intervention: A quantitative approach. Journal of Librarianship & Information Science, 45(1), 53–63. doi:10.1177/0961000611434999

Whitehair, K. J. (2010). Reaching part-time distance students in diverse environments. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(3), 96-105.
The library at the University of Kansas Medical Center has developed an effective instruction program for distance learners in the School of Nursing. By combining face-to-face contact when possible with e-mail, chat, and video conferencing, the librarian liaison works with graduate students to enhance their research skills and to help them become more self-reliant and sophisticated users of library resources. Working with teaching faculty to integrate library information into the courses, the librarian is able to deal with a diverse student population, resulting in student success and librarian satisfaction. M. Schumacher

Williams, S. (2010). New tools for online information literacy instruction. Reference Librarian, 51(2), 148-162. doi:10.1080/02763870903579802
By reviewing several recent studies, the author examines the various modes of providing information literacy instruction to students, as well as comparing the efficacy of online versus face-to-face instruction. Course management software, like Blackboard, blogs, podcasts and screencasts, web-based games and sites like “Second Life” all offer librarians ways to reach a tech-savvy generation of users in an “evolving technological world.” M. Schumacher

Xiao, J. (2010). Integrating information literacy into Blackboard: Librarian-faculty collaboration for successful student learning. Library Management, 31(8/9), 654-668. doi:10.1108/01435121011093423
By incorporating components of information literacy instruction into the Blackboard site for the Nursing 110 course at the College of Staten Island, librarians are able to provide multi-modal assistance to the students working on research into the cultural dimensions of nursing. Assessment of the efforts, which combined face-to-face orientation with websites and tutorials within Blackboard and frequent collaboration with the teaching faculty, shows that students not only learned how to find and evaluate resources, but also developed a far better understanding of plagiarism and how to avoid it. M. Schumacher

Yelinek, K., Neyer, L., Bressler, D., Coffta, M., & Magolis, D. (2010). Using LibGuides for an information literacy tutorial. College & Research Libraries News, 71(7), 352-355.
This article describes the creation of a LibGuide to replace a library research tutorial and a one-credit online research skills class at Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania. Material from the class, and from James Madison University’s “Go for the Gold” library tutorial, were adapted with LibGuides’ functionality in mind. The process of creating the guide, lessons learned during it, and the positive outcomes of the project are briefly outlined. R. Shepard

Zdravkovic, N. (2010). Spicing up information literacy tutorials: Interactive class activities that worked. Public Services Quarterly, 6(1), 48-64.
This article presents six examples of interactive teaching activities used in one-shot instruction sessions by librarians at the University of Auckland. A short description of each activity is provided, along with examples of student responses, a description of outcomes, and an explanation of potential challenges to its use in the classroom. The activities are specifically designed to accommodate short attention spans and need for hands-on learning documented in adult learners. A bibliography of sources of other interactive information literacy-oriented activities recommended by the author is also provided. R. Shepard